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Chapter 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds Functions, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Conformations PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds Functions, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Conformations. Adapted from Profs. Turro & Breslow, Columbia University and Prof. Irene Lee, Case Western Reserve University. Common Functional Groups. Class General Formula

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Chapter 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds Functions, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Conformations

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Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Chapter 2

An Introduction to

Organic Compounds

Functions, Nomenclature,

Physical Properties,

and

Conformations

Adapted from Profs. Turro & Breslow, Columbia University and Prof.Irene Lee,

Case Western Reserve University


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Common Functional Groups

ClassGeneral Formula

HalohydrocarbonsRX

AlcoholsR

EthersRR

Amines


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides

In the IUPAC system, alkyl halides are named as substituted

alkanes


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Structures of Alkyl Halides


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Different Kinds of Alkyl Halides


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Nomenclature of Ethers

As substituents:

???


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Structures of Alcohol and Ether


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • In an alcohol, the OH is a functional group

  • A functional group is the center of reactivity in a

  • molecule

1. Determine the parent hydrocarbon containing the functional

group


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

2. The functional group suffix should get the lowest number

3. When there is both a functional group suffix and a substituent,

the functional group suffix gets the lowest number


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

4. If there is more than one substituent, the substituents are cited

in alphabetical order


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Nomenclature of Amines

  • The substituents are listed in alphabetical order and a number or

  • an “N” is assigned to each one


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Structures of Amines


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Naming Quaternary Ammonium Salts


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

OtherCommon Functional Groups

ClassGeneral Formula

Aldehydes

Ketones

Carboxylic Acids

Esters

Amides


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Attractive Forces

Ionic bonds

Covalent bonds

Hydrogen bonds

Dipole–dipole interaction

Ion-dipole

Dispersion

Forces

van der Waals force

  • The greater the attractive intermoleclar forces between molecules, the higher is the boiling point of the compound, eg. water.


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Protein Shape: Forces, Bonds, Self Assembly,

Folding (Intramolecular forces)

Ion-dipole

(Dissolving)

40-600kJ/mol

10-40kJ/mol

150-1000kJ/mol

0.05-40kJ/mol

700-4,000kJ/mol


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

  • A hydrogen bond is a special kind of dipole–dipole

  • interaction

  • What organic functions can have hydrogen bonding?


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Dipole–Dipole Interaction

Dipole–dipole interactions are stronger than van der

Waals force but weaker than ionic or covalent bonds


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

van der Waals Forces

Boiling and melting points of a compound increases with the increase in van der Waals force


Chapter 2 an introduction to organic compounds functions nomenclature physical properties and conformations

Ion-Dipole & Dipole-Dipole Interactions:

like dissolves like

  • Polar compounds dissolve in polar solvents

  • & non-polar in non-polar


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