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Chapter 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds Functions, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Conformations

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Chapter 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds Functions, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Conformations. Adapted from Profs. Turro & Breslow, Columbia University and Prof. Irene Lee, Case Western Reserve University. Common Functional Groups. Class General Formula

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 2

An Introduction to

Organic Compounds

Functions, Nomenclature,

Physical Properties,

and

Conformations

Adapted from Profs. Turro & Breslow, Columbia University and Prof.Irene Lee,

Case Western Reserve University

slide2

Common Functional Groups

ClassGeneral Formula

Halohydrocarbons RX

Alcohols R

Ethers RR

Amines

slide3

Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides

In the IUPAC system, alkyl halides are named as substituted

alkanes

slide6

Nomenclature of Ethers

As substituents:

???

slide9

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • In an alcohol, the OH is a functional group
  • A functional group is the center of reactivity in a
  • molecule

1. Determine the parent hydrocarbon containing the functional

group

slide10

2. The functional group suffix should get the lowest number

3. When there is both a functional group suffix and a substituent,

the functional group suffix gets the lowest number

slide14

Nomenclature of Amines

  • The substituents are listed in alphabetical order and a number or
  • an “N” is assigned to each one
slide17

OtherCommon Functional Groups

ClassGeneral Formula

Aldehydes

Ketones

Carboxylic Acids

Esters

Amides

slide18

Attractive Forces

Ionic bonds

Covalent bonds

Hydrogen bonds

Dipole–dipole interaction

Ion-dipole

Dispersion

Forces

van der Waals force

  • The greater the attractive intermoleclar forces between molecules, the higher is the boiling point of the compound, eg. water.
slide19

Protein Shape: Forces, Bonds, Self Assembly,

Folding (Intramolecular forces)

Ion-dipole

(Dissolving)

40-600kJ/mol

10-40kJ/mol

150-1000kJ/mol

0.05-40kJ/mol

700-4,000kJ/mol

slide20

A hydrogen bond is a special kind of dipole–dipole

  • interaction
  • What organic functions can have hydrogen bonding?
slide21

Dipole–Dipole Interaction

Dipole–dipole interactions are stronger than van der

Waals force but weaker than ionic or covalent bonds

slide22

van der Waals Forces

Boiling and melting points of a compound increases with the increase in van der Waals force

slide24

Ion-Dipole & Dipole-Dipole Interactions:

like dissolves like

  • Polar compounds dissolve in polar solvents
  • & non-polar in non-polar
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