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Unit I: Grammar. Parts of Speech Basic Sentence Parts and Patterns Phrases and Clauses Avoiding Sentence Errors. Parts of Speech. Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections!. Nouns. Names a person, place, or thing

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Unit i grammar

Unit I: Grammar

Parts of Speech

Basic Sentence Parts and Patterns

Phrases and Clauses

Avoiding Sentence Errors


Parts of speech
Parts of Speech

  • Nouns

  • Pronouns

  • Verbs

  • Adjectives

  • Adverbs

  • Prepositions

  • Conjunctions

  • Interjections!


Nouns
Nouns

  • Names a person, place, or thing

  • PERSON: woman, cousin, pilot, Mr. Lopez, Aunt Margaret

  • PLACE: university, Main Street, desert, Chesapeake Bay, Ohio


Concrete and abstract nouns

CONCRETE: Something you can see, touch, taste, hear, or smell

pitchfork

garlic

critic

bruise

________________

________________

________________

ABSTRACT: Some-thing nonphysical, that you cannot perceive through your 5 senses

patriotism

era

career

immortality

___________________

___________________

___________________

Concrete and Abstract Nouns



Common and proper nouns

playwright

island

building

________________

________________

________________

William Shakespeare

Maui, Sicily

Taj Mahal, Eiffel Tower

__________________

__________________

__________________

Common and Proper Nouns

PARTS OF SPEECH


Pronouns
Pronouns

  • Take the place of nouns

    • Jan and Ken went to the dance. They thought it was great.

  • Antecedents-nouns the pronouns are representing

    • Graduating high school is something all seniors want to do. It is only accomplished by some.



Reflexive and intensive pronouns
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

  • REFLEXIVE: Adds essential information to a sentence.

    • Cats clean themselves carefully after each meal.

  • INTENSIVE: Usually can be removed.

    • You yourself agreed that the house needs painting.



Other pronouns
Other Pronouns

  • Demonstrative—Located before or after antecedents: this, that, these, those

    • That is an ambulance siren.

  • Relative—Relates the pronoun to another idea: which, who, whom, whose

    • We began reading Anthem, which is by Ayn Rand.

  • Interrogative—Begins a question: what, which, who, whom, whose

    • What fell from that ledge?



Indefinate pronouns
Indefinate Pronouns

  • Refers to persons, places, or things in a more general way than a noun does.

    I.e. Everyone has to go to the football game this Friday.


Indefinite pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns

PARTS OF SPEECH


Verbs
Verbs

  • Word or group of words that shows action

    • The dog raced across the field.

    • Students will smile for their pictures today.

    • A sentence is not complete without a verb.


Action verbs linking verbs

Tell what action something is performing:

The dancer will attempt a daring leap.

The kettle whistled incessantly.

I considered my decision carefully.

Connects a subject to a word that describes the subject, usually at the end of the sentence.

Jennifer was a senior.

The man looks busy.

ACTION: The man looked for a taxi.

She appeared unkind.

ACTION: He appeared on stage at the concert.

Action Verbs Linking Verbs


The forms of be
The forms of BE

am can be has been

are could be had been

is may be could have been

was might be may have been

Were must be might have been

be shall be shall have been

being should be should have been

are being will be will have been

is being would be would have been

was being have been


Other linking verbs
Other linking verbs

appear look sound

become remain stay

feel seem taste

grow smell turn


Transitive verbs
Transitive Verbs

  • Transitive verbs direct action toward someone or something

  • Sentences include a direct object

    • He wrote a novel. (Wrote what? A novel)

    • She paid the bill. (Paid what? The bill)

    • The doctor examined the patient. (Examined what/who? The patient)

    • Dogs ate all the meat. (Ate what? Meat)


Intransitive verbs
Intransitive verbs

  • Does not direct action to something or someone named in the sentence.

    • The birds flew south. (Flew what? None.)

    • She sings for the Metropolitan Opera. (Sings what? None.)

    • They cringed in fear. (Cringed what? None.)


Verb phrases
Verb Phrases

  • Verb with one, two, or three helping verbs before it.

    • SINGLE VERB: The firm employed a new secretary.

    • The firm will employ a new secretary.

    • The firm should have employed a new secretary.

    • A new secretary might have been employed by the firm today.


Adjectives
Adjectives

  • Word used to describe nouns or pronouns.

  • Answer the questions:

    • What kind? He saw green fields.

    • Which one? Open the left window.

    • How many? She ate six lobsters.


Adverbs
Adverbs

  • Word that describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb

  • They answer:

    • Where? The jurors sat there.

    • When? She never cleaned the room.

    • How? He officially announced it.

    • To what extent? He always did it right.


Adverbs describing adjectives
Adverbs describing adjectives

  • The solution was quite logical.

    • How logical? quite

  • It was an extremely sour lemon.

    • How sour? extremely

  • She was very late.

    • How late? very


Adverbs describing adverbs
Adverbs describing adverbs

  • He worked very competently.

    • How competently? very

  • I am not completely finished.

    • How completely? not

  • The athlete ran quite quickly.

    • How quickly? quite


Prepositions
Prepositions

Relate the noun to another word in the sentence

  • LOCATION: The brush fire burned atop the hill.

  • DIRECTION: The brush fire burned toward the campsite.

  • TIME: The brush fire burned for three days.

  • CAUSE: The brush fire started because of carelessness.

  • POSSESSION: Smoke from the fire could be seen for miles.


Common prepositions
Common Prepositions

behind

below

beneath

beside

between

beyond

by

down

during

except

for

from

in

into

like

of

off

on

over

past

since

through

throughout

to

toward

under

underneath

until

up

upon

with

within

without

aboard

about

above

across

after

against

along

among

around

at

before


Prepositional phrase
Prepositional Phrase

A group of words that includes a preposition and the object

  • I walked slightly ahead of her.

  • The shampoo bottle on the shelf was almost empty.

  • We fell in love with a lovable, brown-eyed puppy.

  • Our new house is located near stores and schools.


Prepositional phrases in questions
Prepositional Phrases in Questions

  • What were we talking about?

    • The phrase is broken up: about what.

  • Where did this come from?

    • The phrase is broken up: from where.


Find the phrases
Find the Phrases

  • HINT: Find the preposition; then find the object.

  • As of today, he had become a teenager.

  • They drove down to the cabin on the lake this weekend.

  • Eat green beans instead of French fries for a healthy diet.

  • No one is supposed to drive by the abandoned building.


Conjunctions
Conjunctions

  • Word used to connect other words or groups of words.

  • Three main types:

    • Coordinating

    • Correlative

    • Subordinating


Coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions

  • Connect similar parts of speech or items of equal weight:

    and but for nor or so yet

  • With nouns and pronouns:

    • Inga and I attended the concert.

  • With verbs:

    • She will run or jump at the track meet.

  • With adverbs:

    • The man responded quickly but incorrectly.


Coordinating conjunctions cont d
Coordinating Conjunctions cont’d

  • With adjectives:

    • The steak was tender, large, yet tasteless.

  • With prepositional phrases:

    • I will go to Greece or to Spain.

  • With complete ideas:

    • He seemed distressed, so we discussed his problem.


Correlative conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions

  • Must work in pairs to correlate ideas

    both…and

    either…or

    neither…nor

    not only…but also

    whether…or


Correlative conjunctions cont d
Correlative Conjunctions cont’d

  • With nouns and pronouns:

    • Call either Ed or me if you need help.

  • With adjectives:

    • The rain was not only heavy but also cold.

  • With prepositional phrases:

    • Put the check neither in the drawer nor beside the telephone.

  • With complete ideas:

    • Whether they run or walk, they will arrive eventually.


Subordinating conjunctions

after because

although before

as even if

as if even though

as long as how

as much as if

as soon as in order that

as though lest

now that unless

provided until

since when

so that whenever

than where

that wherever

though while

till

Subordinating Conjunctions

  • Two complete ideas by making one of the ideas subordinate or dependent upon the other.


Examples of subordinating conjunctions
Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions

  • The referees watched carefully lest they miss a key play.

  • The termites remained, although the fumigator sprayed.

  • After the billboards were removed, the area’s natural beauty was restored.


Conjunctive adverbs

accordingly

again

also

besides

consequently

finally

furthermore

however

indeed

moreover

nevertheless

otherwise

then

therefore

thus

Conjunctive Adverbs

Act as transitions between complete ideas by indicating comparisons, contrasts, and results.


Conjunctive adverbs examples
Conjunctive Adverbs Examples

  • The doctor did help my back problem; however, I still experience occasional pain.

  • The earthquake damaged the wall. Moreover, it broke some water pipes.

  • My hay fever grew worse. I, nevertheless, refused to remain inside.


Interjections
Interjections!

  • An interjection is a word that expresses feeling or emotion and functions independently of a sentence.

    ah gracious psst

    aha hey tsk

    alas hurray well

    dear oh whew

    goodness ouch wow


Interjection examples
Interjection Examples

  • Ouch! That bee sting hurts!

  • Goodness, if you don’t leave now, you will be late!

  • ___________! What was that noise?

  • ___________! Come over here!

  • ___________! I’m exhausted.


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