Unit i grammar
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Unit I: Grammar. Parts of Speech Basic Sentence Parts and Patterns Phrases and Clauses Avoiding Sentence Errors. Parts of Speech. Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections!. Nouns. Names a person, place, or thing

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Unit I: Grammar

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Unit i grammar

Unit I: Grammar

Parts of Speech

Basic Sentence Parts and Patterns

Phrases and Clauses

Avoiding Sentence Errors


Parts of speech

Parts of Speech

  • Nouns

  • Pronouns

  • Verbs

  • Adjectives

  • Adverbs

  • Prepositions

  • Conjunctions

  • Interjections!


Nouns

Nouns

  • Names a person, place, or thing

  • PERSON: woman, cousin, pilot, Mr. Lopez, Aunt Margaret

  • PLACE: university, Main Street, desert, Chesapeake Bay, Ohio


Concrete and abstract nouns

CONCRETE: Something you can see, touch, taste, hear, or smell

pitchfork

garlic

critic

bruise

________________

________________

________________

ABSTRACT: Some-thing nonphysical, that you cannot perceive through your 5 senses

patriotism

era

career

immortality

___________________

___________________

___________________

Concrete and Abstract Nouns


Singular and plural nouns

Singular and Plural Nouns


Common and proper nouns

playwright

island

building

________________

________________

________________

William Shakespeare

Maui, Sicily

Taj Mahal, Eiffel Tower

__________________

__________________

__________________

Common and Proper Nouns

PARTS OF SPEECH


Pronouns

Pronouns

  • Take the place of nouns

    • Jan and Ken went to the dance. They thought it was great.

  • Antecedents-nouns the pronouns are representing

    • Graduating high school is something all seniors want to do. It is only accomplished by some.


Personal pronouns

Personal Pronouns


Reflexive and intensive pronouns

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

  • REFLEXIVE: Adds essential information to a sentence.

    • Cats clean themselves carefully after each meal.

  • INTENSIVE: Usually can be removed.

    • You yourself agreed that the house needs painting.


Reflexive and intensive pronouns1

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns


Other pronouns

Other Pronouns

  • Demonstrative—Located before or after antecedents: this, that, these, those

    • That is an ambulance siren.

  • Relative—Relates the pronoun to another idea: which, who, whom, whose

    • We began reading Anthem, which is by Ayn Rand.

  • Interrogative—Begins a question: what, which, who, whom, whose

    • What fell from that ledge?


Other pronouns1

Other Pronouns


Indefinate pronouns

Indefinate Pronouns

  • Refers to persons, places, or things in a more general way than a noun does.

    I.e. Everyone has to go to the football game this Friday.


Indefinite pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns

PARTS OF SPEECH


Verbs

Verbs

  • Word or group of words that shows action

    • The dog raced across the field.

    • Students will smile for their pictures today.

    • A sentence is not complete without a verb.


Action verbs linking verbs

Tell what action something is performing:

The dancer will attempt a daring leap.

The kettle whistled incessantly.

I considered my decision carefully.

Connects a subject to a word that describes the subject, usually at the end of the sentence.

Jennifer was a senior.

The man looks busy.

ACTION: The man looked for a taxi.

She appeared unkind.

ACTION: He appeared on stage at the concert.

Action Verbs Linking Verbs


The forms of be

The forms of BE

amcan behas been

arecould behad been

is may becould have been

was might bemay have been

Weremust bemight have been

be shall beshall have been

being should beshould have been

are being will bewill have been

is being would bewould have been

was being have been


Other linking verbs

Other linking verbs

appearlooksound

becomeremainstay

feelseemtaste

growsmellturn


Transitive verbs

Transitive Verbs

  • Transitive verbs direct action toward someone or something

  • Sentences include a direct object

    • He wrote a novel. (Wrote what? A novel)

    • She paid the bill.(Paid what? The bill)

    • The doctor examined the patient. (Examined what/who? The patient)

    • Dogs ate all the meat. (Ate what? Meat)


Intransitive verbs

Intransitive verbs

  • Does not direct action to something or someone named in the sentence.

    • The birds flew south. (Flew what? None.)

    • She sings for the Metropolitan Opera. (Sings what? None.)

    • They cringed in fear. (Cringed what? None.)


Verb phrases

Verb Phrases

  • Verb with one, two, or three helping verbs before it.

    • SINGLE VERB: The firm employed a new secretary.

    • The firm will employ a new secretary.

    • The firm should have employed a new secretary.

    • A new secretary might have been employed by the firm today.


Adjectives

Adjectives

  • Word used to describe nouns or pronouns.

  • Answer the questions:

    • What kind? He saw green fields.

    • Which one?Open the left window.

    • How many?She ate six lobsters.


Adverbs

Adverbs

  • Word that describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb

  • They answer:

    • Where? The jurors sat there.

    • When? She never cleaned the room.

    • How? He officially announced it.

    • To what extent? He always did it right.


Adverbs describing adjectives

Adverbs describing adjectives

  • The solution was quite logical.

    • How logical? quite

  • It was an extremely sour lemon.

    • How sour? extremely

  • She was very late.

    • How late? very


Adverbs describing adverbs

Adverbs describing adverbs

  • He worked very competently.

    • How competently? very

  • I am not completely finished.

    • How completely? not

  • The athlete ran quite quickly.

    • How quickly? quite


Prepositions

Prepositions

Relate the noun to another word in the sentence

  • LOCATION: The brush fire burned atop the hill.

  • DIRECTION: The brush fire burned toward the campsite.

  • TIME: The brush fire burned for three days.

  • CAUSE: The brush fire started because of carelessness.

  • POSSESSION: Smoke from the fire could be seen for miles.


Common prepositions

Common Prepositions

behind

below

beneath

beside

between

beyond

by

down

during

except

for

from

in

into

like

of

off

on

over

past

since

through

throughout

to

toward

under

underneath

until

up

upon

with

within

without

aboard

about

above

across

after

against

along

among

around

at

before


Prepositional phrase

Prepositional Phrase

A group of words that includes a preposition and the object

  • I walked slightly ahead of her.

  • The shampoo bottle on the shelf was almost empty.

  • We fell in love with a lovable, brown-eyed puppy.

  • Our new house is located near stores and schools.


Prepositional phrases in questions

Prepositional Phrases in Questions

  • What were we talking about?

    • The phrase is broken up: about what.

  • Where did this come from?

    • The phrase is broken up: from where.


Find the phrases

Find the Phrases

  • HINT: Find the preposition; then find the object.

  • As of today, he had become a teenager.

  • They drove down to the cabin on the lake this weekend.

  • Eat green beans instead of French fries for a healthy diet.

  • No one is supposed to drive by the abandoned building.


Conjunctions

Conjunctions

  • Word used to connect other words or groups of words.

  • Three main types:

    • Coordinating

    • Correlative

    • Subordinating


Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions

  • Connect similar parts of speech or items of equal weight:

    and but for nor or so yet

  • With nouns and pronouns:

    • Inga and I attended the concert.

  • With verbs:

    • She will run or jump at the track meet.

  • With adverbs:

    • The man responded quickly but incorrectly.


Coordinating conjunctions cont d

Coordinating Conjunctions cont’d

  • With adjectives:

    • The steak was tender, large, yet tasteless.

  • With prepositional phrases:

    • I will go to Greece or to Spain.

  • With complete ideas:

    • He seemed distressed, so we discussed his problem.


Correlative conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions

  • Must work in pairs to correlate ideas

    both…and

    either…or

    neither…nor

    not only…but also

    whether…or


Correlative conjunctions cont d

Correlative Conjunctions cont’d

  • With nouns and pronouns:

    • Call either Ed or me if you need help.

  • With adjectives:

    • The rain was not only heavy but also cold.

  • With prepositional phrases:

    • Put the check neither in the drawer nor beside the telephone.

  • With complete ideas:

    • Whether they run or walk, they will arrive eventually.


Subordinating conjunctions

afterbecause

althoughbefore

aseven if

as ifeven though

as long ashow

as much asif

as soon as in order that

as thoughlest

now thatunless

provideduntil

sincewhen

so thatwhenever

thanwhere

thatwherever

thoughwhile

till

Subordinating Conjunctions

  • Two complete ideas by making one of the ideas subordinate or dependent upon the other.


Examples of subordinating conjunctions

Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions

  • The referees watched carefully lest they miss a key play.

  • The termites remained, although the fumigator sprayed.

  • After the billboards were removed, the area’s natural beauty was restored.


Conjunctive adverbs

accordingly

again

also

besides

consequently

finally

furthermore

however

indeed

moreover

nevertheless

otherwise

then

therefore

thus

Conjunctive Adverbs

Act as transitions between complete ideas by indicating comparisons, contrasts, and results.


Conjunctive adverbs examples

Conjunctive Adverbs Examples

  • The doctor did help my back problem; however, I still experience occasional pain.

  • The earthquake damaged the wall. Moreover, it broke some water pipes.

  • My hay fever grew worse. I, nevertheless, refused to remain inside.


Interjections

Interjections!

  • An interjection is a word that expresses feeling or emotion and functions independently of a sentence.

    ahgraciouspsst

    ahaheytsk

    alashurraywell

    dearohwhew

    goodnessouchwow


Interjection examples

Interjection Examples

  • Ouch! That bee sting hurts!

  • Goodness, if you don’t leave now, you will be late!

  • ___________! What was that noise?

  • ___________! Come over here!

  • ___________! I’m exhausted.


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