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Tissue and Membranes ST110 Concorde Career College. INTRODUCTION. Tissue : group of similar cells that perform a common function Matrix : nonliving intercellular material Histology: The study of the structure, composition and functions of tissues. Four Major Types of Human Tissue.

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Tissue and membranes st110 concorde career college

Tissue and MembranesST110Concorde Career College


Introduction
INTRODUCTION

  • Tissue: group of similar cells that perform a common function

  • Matrix: nonliving intercellular material

  • Histology: The study of the structure, composition and functions of tissues


Four major types of human tissue
Four Major Types of Human Tissue

  • Epithelial

  • Connective

  • Muscle

  • Nervous


Epithelial tissue
EPITHELIAL TISSUE

  • Types

    • Epithelium is divided into two types:

      • Membranous (covering or lining) epithelium

      • Glandular epithelium


Epithelial tissue1
Epithelial tissue

  • Locations

    • Membranous epithelium: covers the body and some of its parts and lines the serous cavities; blood and lymphatic vessels; and respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary tracts

    • Glandular epithelium: secretory units of endocrine and exocrine glands

    • Along with connective are bound together by a basement membrane.


Epithelial tissues
Epithelial Tissues

  • Functions include:

    • Protection

      • Skin

    • Excretion and Secretion

      • endocrine glands

      • Mucous glands

      • Kidneys

      • Sweat glands

    • Diffusion

      • Alveolar wall

    • Cleaning

      • Intestinal tract (Ciliated)

    • Absorption

      • Intestinal tract

      • Kidneys

    • Sensation

      • Skin

      • Tongue


Epithelial tissue cont
EPITHELIAL TISSUE (cont.)

  • Generalizations about epithelial tissue

    • Limited amount of matrix material

    • Membranous type attached to a basement membrane

    • Avascular

    • Cells are in closely packed together, with many desmosomes and tight junctions

    • Capable of reproduction


Epithelial tissue membranous
EPITHELIAL TISSUE: MEMBRANOUS

  • Classification of epithelial tissue

    • Membranous (covering or lining) epithelium

      • Classification based on cell shape

        • Squamous

        • Cuboidal

        • Columnar

        • Transitional

        • Pseudostratified columnar


Epithelial tissue membranous1
EPITHELIAL TISSUE: MEMBRANOUS

  • Epithelial and Connective tissue are bound together by basement membrane


Epithelial tissue2
EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Classification based on layers of cells:

Simple epithelium

  • Simple squamous epithelium

    • One-cell layer of flat cells

    • Permeable to many substances

    • Examples: Alveoli of the lungs and lining of blood vessels

  • Simple cuboidal epithelium

    • One-cell layer of cells that are as tall as they are wide

    • Found in many glands and ducts (secretion & absorption)


Simple squamous
Simple squamous

  • Found in the lining of the heart, blood and lymphatic vessels, body cavities, and alveoli of the lungs.


Simple cuboidal
Simple cuboidal


Epithelial tissue cont1
EPITHELIAL TISSUE (cont.)

  • Classifications based on layers of cells (cont.)

    • Simple columnar epithelium

      • Single layer of tall, column-shaped cells

      • Cells often modified for certain functions such as goblet cells (secretion), cilia (movement), microvilli (absorption)

      • Often lines hollow visceral structures

    • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

      • Columnar cells of differing heights

      • All cells rest on basement membrane but may not reach the free surface above

      • Cell nuclei at odd and irregular levels

      • Found lining air passages and segments of male reproductive system

      • Motile cilia and mucus are important modifications




Cilia
Cilia

  • Hair-like extensions of cells in the respiratory tract and female reproductive system.


Epithelial tissue cont2
EPITHELIAL TISSUE (cont.)

Classifications based on layers of cells (cont.)

  • Stratified epithelium

    • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

      • Multiple layers of flat, squamous cells

      • Cells filled with keratin

      • Covering outer skin on body surface

    • Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

      • Lining vagina, mouth, and esophagus

      • Free surface is moist

      • Primary function is protection

    • Stratified cuboidal epithelium

      • Two or more rows of cells are typical

      • Basement membrane is indistinct

      • Located in sweat gland ducts and pharynx


Keratinized stratified squamous
Keratinized stratified squamous

  • Found in covering outer skin on body surface.


Nonkeratinized stratified squamous
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous

  • Found in lining of vagina, mouth and esophagus.


Stratified cuboidal
Stratified cuboidal


Epithelial tissue cont3
EPITHELIAL TISSUE (cont.)

Classifications based on layers of cells (cont.)

  • Stratified columnar epithelium

    • Multiple layers of columnar cells

    • Only most superficial cells are typical in shape

    • Rare

    • Located in segments of male urethra and near anus

  • Transitional epithelium

    • Located in lining of hollow viscera subjected to

      stress (e.g., urinary bladder)

    • Often 10 or more layers thick

    • Protects organ walls from tearing

    • Has varying shapes and is capable of stretching

      (found in urinary bladder)


  • Epithelial tissue glandular epithelium
    EPITHELIAL TISSUE: GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM

    • Glandular epithelium

      • Glands are usually composed of simple cuboidal cells

      • Specialized for secretory activity

      • Exocrine glands: discharge secretions into ducts

        • Simple exocrine glands- only has one duct leading to the surface

        • Compound exocrine glands- only has two or more ducts leading to the surface

      • Endocrine glands: “ductless” glands; discharge secretions directly into blood or interstitial fluid

      • Goblet cells- glandular epithelial cells that secrete mucous to lubricate the intestinal wall


    Epithelial tissue glandular epithelium cont
    EPITHELIAL TISSUE: GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM (cont.)

    • Structural classification of exocrine glands

      • Multicellular exocrine glands are classified by the shape of their ducts and the complexity of their duct system

      • Shapes include tubular and alveolar

      • Simple exocrine glands: only one duct leads to the surface

      • Compound exocrine glands: have two or more ducts


    Epithelial tissue glandular epithelium cont1
    EPITHELIAL TISSUE: GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM (cont.)

    • Functional classification of exocrine glands (Figure 5-12)

      • Apocrine glands

        • Secretory products collect near apex of cell and are secreted by pinching off the distended end

        • Secretion process results in some damage to cell wall and some loss of cytoplasm

        • Mammary glands are good examples

      • Holocrine glands

        • Secretion products, when released, cause rupture and death of the cell

        • Sebaceous glands are holocrine

      • Merocrine glands

        • Secrete directly through cell membrane

        • Secretion proceeds with no damage to cell wall and no loss of cytoplasm

        • Most numerous gland type

          Mast= cell that produces heparin and histamine


    Connective tissue
    CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    • Has large amounts of intracellular matrix

    • Most varied and abundant tissue in the body

    • Functions, characteristics, and types

      • General function:

        • Support – holds organ together

        • Bind together tissues

        • Mechanical framework (skeleton)

      • General characteristics

        • ECM predominates in most connective tissues and determines its physical characteristics

        • Consists of fluid, gel, or solid matrix, with or without extracellular fibers (collagenous, reticular, and elastic) and proteoglycans or other compounds that thicken and hold together the tissue


    Connective tissue1
    CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    • Types

      • Three subgroups:

        • Loose connective Tissue

        • Dense Connective Tissue

        • Specialized Connective Tissue


    Connective tissue cont
    CONNECTIVE TISSUE (cont.)

    • Loose Connective Tissue

      • Areolar

      • Adipose

      • Reticular

  • Dense Connective Tissue

    • Fibrous

    • Elastic

  • Specialized Connective Tissue

    • Bone

    • Compact bone

    • Cancellous bone

    • Cartilage

    • Hyaline

    • Fibrocartilage

    • Elastic

    • Blood


  • Loose areolar connective tissue
    Loose areolar connective tissue


    Connection tissue cont
    CONNECTION TISSUE cont.

    • Areolar connective tissue

      • One of the most widely distributed of all tissues

      • Intercellular substance is prominent and consists of collagenous and elastic fibers loosely interwoven and embedded in soft viscous ground substance

      • Several kinds of cells present, notably fibroblasts and macrophages, also mast cells, plasma cells, fat cells, and some white blood cells

      • Function: stretchy, flexible connection


    Areolar connective tissue
    Areolar connective tissue


    Connection tissue cont1
    CONNECTION TISSUE (cont.)

    • Adipose tissue

      • Similar to loose connective tissue but contains mainly fat cells

      • Functions: protection, insulation, support, and food reserve

    • Reticular tissue

      • Forms framework of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

      • Consists of network of branching reticular fibers with reticular cells overlying them

      • Functions: defense against microorganisms and other injurious substances; reticular meshwork filters out injurious particles and reticular cells phagocytose them




    Dense connective tissue
    Dense CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    • Dense Connective Tissue

      • Matrix consists mainly of densely packed fibers and relatively few fibroblast cells

        • Irregular: fibers intertwine irregularly to form a thick mat

        • Regular: bundles of fibers are arranged in regular parallel rows

          • Fibrous(Collagenous): mostly collagenous fibers in ECM

          • Elastic: mostly elastic fibers in ECM





    Dense connective tissue cont
    Dense CONNeCTIVETISSUE (cont.)

    • Locations: structures that need great tensile strength, such as tendons and ligaments; also dermis and the outer capsule of the kidney and spleen

    • Function: furnishes flexible connections that are strong or stretchy


    Day 2

    DAY 2

    Membranes and Wound Healing


    Specialized connective tissue bone tissue
    Specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE: BONE TISSUE

    • Bone tissue

      • Uniquely hard and strong connective tissue type

        • Cells (osteocytes) embedded in a calcified matrix

        • Inorganic component of matrix accounts for 65% of total bone tissue

      • Functions

        • Support

        • Protection

        • Point of attachment for muscles

        • Reservoir for minerals

        • Supports blood-forming tissue

        • Provide movement


    Specialized connective tissue bone tissue cont
    Specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE:BONE TISSUE (cont.)

    • Compact bone

      • Osteon (Haversian system)

        • Structural unity of bone

        • Spaces for osteocytes called lacunae

        • Matrix present in concentric rings called lamellae

        • Canaliculi are canals that join lacunae with the central Haversiancanal (communication passageway)

      • Cell types

        • Osteocyte: mature, inactive bone cell

        • Osteoblast: active bone-forming cell

        • Osteoclast: bone-destroying cell



    Specialized connective tissue bone tissue cont1
    Specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE: BONE TISSUE (cont.)

    • Cancellous bone made up of trabeculae

      • Trabeculae: thin beams of bone

      • Supports red bone marrow

        • Myeloid tissue: a type of reticular tissue

        • Produces blood cells

      • Called spongy bone because of its spongelikeappearance

      • Endochondrial ossification- the conversion of cartilage to bone

      • Periosteum- membrane that surrounds bone


    Specialized connective tissue cartilage
    Specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE: CARTILAGE

    • Cartilage

      • Chondrocyte is the only cell type present

      • Lacunae house cells as in bone

      • Avascular: nutrition of cells depends on diffusion of nutrients through matrix

      • Heals slowly after injury because of slow nutrient transfer to cells

      • Perichondrium is membrane that surrounds cartilage

      • Endochondrial ossification- the conversion of cartilage to bone


    Specialized connective tissue cartilage cont
    Specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE: CARTILAGE (cont.)

    • Types

      • Hyaline

        • Appearance is shiny and translucent

        • Most prevalent type of cartilage

        • Located on ends of articulating bones

      • Fibrocartilage

        • Strongest and most durable type of cartilage

        • Matrix is semirigid and filled with strong white fibers

        • Found in intervertebral disks and pubic symphysis

        • Serves as shock-absorbing material between bones at the knee (menisci)

      • Elastic

        • Contains many fine elastic fibers

        • Provides strength and flexibility

        • Located in external ear and larynx




    Specialized connective tissue blood
    Specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE: BLOOD

    • Blood

      • A liquid tissue

      • Contains neither ground substance nor fibers

      • Composition of whole blood

        • Liquid fraction (plasma) is the matrix; 55% of total blood volume

        • Formed elements contribute 45% of total blood volume

          • Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

          • White blood cells (leukocytes)

          • Platelets (thrombocytes)



    Specialized connective tissue blood cont
    Specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE: BLOOD (cont.)

    • Functions

      • Transportation

      • Regulation of body temperature

      • Regulation of body pH

      • White blood cells destroy bacteria

    • Circulating blood tissue is formed in the red bone marrow by a process called hematopoiesis; the blood-forming tissue is sometimes called hematopoietic tissue


    Hematopoietic tissues
    Hematopoietic Tissues

    • Tissues that form RBC’s or WBC’s

      • Lymphoid organs

        • WBC’s

      • Red bone Marrow

        • RBC’s


    Muscle tissue
    MUSCLE TISSUE

    • Types

      • Skeletal, or striated voluntary

      • Smooth, also known as nonstriated involuntary or visceral

      • Cardiac, or striated involuntary

    • Microscopic characteristics

      • Skeletal muscle: threadlike cells with many cross-striations and many nuclei per cell

      • Smooth muscle: elongated narrow cells, no cross-striations, one nucleus per cell

      • Cardiac muscle: branching cells with intercalated disks (formed by abutment of plasma membranes of two cells)

      • Works with connective tissue to provide movement



    Smooth muscle
    Smooth muscle

    • Located in walls of hollow organs, bladder, and uterus




    Nervous tissue
    NERVOUS TISSUE

    • Functions: rapid regulation and integration of body activities

    • Special characteristics

      • Excitability

      • Conductivity

    • Organs

      • Brain

      • Spinal cord

      • Nerves


    Nervous tissue cont
    NERVOUS TISSUE (cont.)

    • Cell types

      • Neuron: conducting unit of system. Composed of axon, dendrites, myelin sheath, and cell body (soma)

        • Cell body, or soma

        • Processes

          • Axon (single process): transmits nerve impulse away from the cell body

          • Dendrite (one or more): transmits nerve impulse toward the cell body and axon

      • Neuroglia: special connecting, supporting, coordinating cells that surround neurons

      • Epineurium- the connective membrane that surrounds entire nerve



    Body membranes
    BODY MEMBRANES

    • Thin, “sheet like” tissue layers that cover surfaces, line cavities, and divide spaces or organs

    • Four major types:

      • Cutaneous

      • Serous

      • Mucous

      • Synovial (connective tissue)


    Serous membranes
    Serous Membranes

    • Line body cavities that are not open to the outside of the body

    • Secrete a thin watery fluid called Serous Fluid

      • Lubricates the surface of the membrane and reduces friction between structures

    • Visceral layer: covers the organs within the cavity

    • Parietal layer: the inner linings of those cavities

      • Visceral peritenium- covers the organs within the abdominal cavity

      • Parietal peritoneum- inner lining of the abdominal cavity


    Serous membranes1
    Serous Membranes

    • Pleura: serous membranes in the thoracic cavity

    • Peritoneum: serous membranes in the abdominal cavity


    Cutaneous membranes
    Cutaneous membranes

    • Epithelial membranes are most common type

      • Cutaneous membrane (skin)

        • Primary organ of integumentary system

        • One of the most important organs

        • Approximately 16% of body weight


    Mucous membranes
    Mucous Membranes

    Epithelial Tissue Membranes Cont.

    • Mucous membrane (mucosa)

      • Lines and protects organs that open outside the body

      • Found lining ducts and passageways of the respiratory, digestive, and other tracts

      • Lamina propria: fibrous connective tissue underlying mucous epithelium

      • Mucus is made of mostly of water and mucins—proteoglycans that form a double-layer protection against environmental microbes


    Body membranes cont
    BODY MEMBRANES (cont.)

    • Connective tissue membrane:

      • Synovial membranes line the spaces between bone in joints (classified as connective tissue membrane)

        • Do not contain epithelial components

        • Have smooth and slick membranes that secrete synovial fluid

        • Help reduce friction between opposing surfaces in a movable joint

        • Synovial membranes also line bursae


    The big picture tissues membranes and the whole body
    THE BIG PICTURE: TISSUES, MEMBRANES, AND THE WHOLE BODY

    • Tissues and membranes maintain homeostasis

      • Epithelial tissues

        • Form membranes that contain and protect the internal fluid environment

        • Absorb nutrients

        • Secrete products that regulate functions involved in homeostasis

      • Connective tissues

        • Hold organs and systems together

        • Form structures that support the body and permit movement


    The big picture tissues membranes and the whole body cont
    THE BIG PICTURE: TISSUES, MEMBRANES, AND THE WHOLE BODY (cont.)

    • Muscle tissues

      • Work with connective tissues to permit movement

    • Nervous tissues

      • Work with glandular epithelial tissue to regulate body function


    Tissue repair
    TISSUE REPAIR (cont.)

    • Tissues have a varying capacity to repair themselves; damaged tissue regenerates or is replaced by scar tissue

    • Regeneration: growth of new tissue

    • Scar: dense, fibrous mass; unusually thick scar is a keloid

    • Epithelial and connective tissues have the greatest ability to regenerate

    • Muscle and nervous tissues have limited capacity to regenerate


    Classification of surgical wounds
    Classification of Surgical Wounds (cont.)

    • Two types of surgical wounds:

      • Incisional: intentional cut through intact tissue for the purpose of exposing underlying structures

      • Excisional: Removal of tissue

    • Four Classes of surgical wounds:

      Classified by degree of microbial intrusion

      • Class I (clean)

      • Class II (Clean-contaminated)

      • Class III (Contaminated)

      • Class IV (dirty-infected)


    Classification of surgical wound cont
    Classification of Surgical (cont.)Wound(Cont.)

    • Wound classes

      • Class I- Clean occurs when an incision is made

      • Class II- Clean-Contaminated occurs after a primary closure- drain placed minor break in aseptic technique

      • Class III- Contaminated occurs when an open traumatic wound is encountered, aerodigestive tract, biliary, or genitourinary tract was entered with spillage, or major break in aseptic technique.

      • Class IV- Dirty-Infected occurs in open traumatic wounds in which microbial contamination had previously occured


    Classification of surgical wound cont1
    Classification of Surgical Wound(Cont.) (cont.)

    • Infection rate

      • Class I – 1%-5%

      • Class II - 8%- 11%

      • Class III - 15%- 20%

      • Class IV - 27%- 40%


    Wound healing
    Wound Healing (cont.)

    • First Intention– Primary Union

    • Second Intention-- Granulation

    • Third Intention– Delayed primary Closure


    First intention healing
    First Intention Healing (cont.)

    • Primary union

    • Ideal

    • Wound heals side to side w/o infection

    • Inflammatory Response aka Lag Phase:

      3-5 days

      • Inflammation

      • Swelling

      • Heat

      • Redness

      • Loss of function

      • Scab forms


    First intention continued
    First Intention Continued (cont.)

    • Proliferation Phase: begins around the 3rd or 4th day and lasts for 20 days

      • Collagen fibers provide some tensile strength

      • New capillary network is established

        (day 5-6)

    • Maturation aka Differentiation Phase: Day 14 – healed

      • Tensile strength increases

      • Wound contraction complete (day 21)

      • Mature scar formed *Cicatrix


    Second intention healing
    Second intention Healing (cont.)

    • Granulation

    • Occurs when a wound fails to heal by 1st intention

    • Wound left open to heal from the bottom up

    • Wound closure occurs by contraction

    • Weak (herniation common) and forms a large scar

    • Examples:

      • When wound can not be reapproximated

      • Infected wounds


    Third intention healing
    Third Intention Healing (cont.)

    • Delayed primary closure

    • Used for dirty wounds

    • Wound is treated by debridment of dead tissue………then left open to heal by second intention (4-6 days)

    • once the wound is infection free, it is closed with suture or staples to finish healing by first intention



    Complications of wound healing
    Complications of Wound Healing (cont.)

    • Dehiscence: partial or total separation of a layer (or layers) of tissue after closure

      • Most frequently between the 5th and 10thPostop day

      • Causes:

        • Abdominal distention

        • Coughing or Vomiting

        • Improper suture

        • Improper suturing technique

    • Dead Space (pg. 55): can occur when subcutaneous tissues are not approximated with suture


    Dehiscence
    Dehiscence (cont.)


    Complications of wound healing cont
    Complications of Wound Healing Cont. (cont.)

    • Evisceration

    • Hemorrhage

    • Adhesions

    • Herniation

    • Fistula

    • Keloid Scaring

    • Sinus Tract



    Adhesions
    Adhesions (cont.)


    Herniation
    Herniation (cont.)


    Keloid scaring
    Keloid (cont.) Scaring


    Tissue typing
    Tissue Typing (cont.)

    • We have genetic markers on the surface of our WBC’s

      • Ex. HLA: Human leukocyte antigen

        • An antigen is something that when introduced into the body triggers an immune response.

    • Donor WBC’s and Recipient WBC’s are mixed

      • If an immune response occurs (ex. Proliferation of WBC’s) the tissue will likely be rejected

  • DNA Tissue Typing

    • MHC: major histocompatibility complex

      • Particular genes unique to each individual


  • Surgical specimens
    Surgical Specimens (cont.)

    • Permanent section:

      • 10% formalin

      • May remain on sterile field until the end of case

    • Fresh or Frozen section:

      • Sent immediately after removal

      • Pathologist will phone OR with results

    • Surgical Techs Responsibilities

      • Must be able to Identity the specimen

      • Identify the origin

      • Must properly communicate information to circulator

      • Properly identify and explain markers (suture)

    • Specimens should be placed in/on:

      • Sterile specimen cup

      • Sterile Telfa pad

      • Sterile towel

      • Sterile basin

      • *a counted sterile sponge should never be used


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