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Temporal Contiguity Principle. 040202_chun. Introduction. What is Temporal Contiguity ? The corresponding words and pictures are contiguous in time. What is successive presentation? The corresponding words and pictures are not contiguous in time. What is simultaneous presentation?

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Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • What is Temporal Contiguity ?

    • The corresponding words and pictures are contiguous in time.

  • What is successive presentation?

    • The corresponding words and pictures are not contiguous in time.

  • What is simultaneous presentation?

    • The corresponding words and pictures are presented at the same time.


The case for separating words and pictures l.jpg
The case for separating words and pictures

  • simultaneous presentation

    • Allows for only one exposure with verbal and visual depiction happening at the same time.

  • successive presentation

    • Allows two separate exposure.


The case for separating words and pictures cont l.jpg
The case for separating words and pictures (Cont.)

  • The information-delivery theory

    • Students should learn more with successive presentations

    • Students receive two deliveries

    • Predicts that students given successive presentations should outperform simultaneous presentations on tests.


The case for integrating words and pictures l.jpg
The case for integrating words and pictures

  • Cognitive theory of multimedia learning

    • Simultaneous presentation increase the chances to hold visual and verbal representations at the same time.

    • Successive presentations require a learner to hold the entire narration in working memory until the animation presented.


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The case for integrating words and pictures (Conts.)

  • Cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Conts.)

    • Predicts that:

      • simultaneous presentation are better able to understand the explanation. (using transfer test )

      • Simultaneous presentation would perform better on retention

      • Successive presentation are more likely to focus on the wording of the verbal presentation


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Distinction between spatial contiguity and temporal contiguity

  • spatial contiguity

    • Deals with placing corresponding words and pictures close to each other on the page

  • temporal contiguity

    • Deals with presenting corresponding words and pictures close to each other in time



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Temporal contiguity effect for retention (Conts.) contiguity

  • Why did we fail to find a temporal contiguity effect for the retention?

    • In simultaneous , students were able to build a deeper understanding of the material.

    • In successive , students were able to listen to the narration without any other distractions, which should help them in verbal retention



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Temporal contiguity effect for transfer (Conts.) contiguity

  • Transfer test are intended to measure the learner’s understanding of the presented material

  • The simultaneous performed much better than the successive.

  • This evidence support the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and against the information delivery theory.




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Extensions of the temporal contiguity effect for retention and transfer (Conts.)

  • The successive small-segments presentations enable the same kind of active cognitive processing as simultaneous presentations.



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Extensions of the temporal contiguity effect for retention and transfer (Conts.)

  • Presenting simultaneous resulted in transfer performance essentially equivalent to presenting successively in small segments.

  • These results are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and inconsistent with the information-delivery theory.


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Implications for multimedia learning and transfer (Conts.)

  • The results are largely inconsistent with the information-delivery theory of multimedia learning

    • That two deliveries of the same information must be better than one

  • When verbal and visual presentations are separated more than a few seconds, students perform more poorly on transfer than simultaneously.


Implications for multimedia learning conts l.jpg
Implications for multimedia learning (Conts.) and transfer (Conts.)

  • Simultaneous presentations take advantage of

    • The dual-channel capabilities of humans

    • The limited capacity of each channel

    • The need for active cognitive processing by encouraging learners to make connections between corresponding visual and verbal representations.


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Implications for multimedia design and transfer (Conts.)

  • Present words and pictures near rather than far form each other in time .

  • The job of designers is not only to present information.

  • Simultaneous presentations prime the learner to build connections between corresponding visual and verbal material.


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