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Elves , Sprites & Gnomes. Atmospheric Transient Luminous Events Optical counterpart of upper atmosphere electromagnetic phenomena Reports on strange and elusive light sources from Aircraft pilots for many years (UFOs included) First measurement in 1990 Dedicated programs since 1995

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Elves sprites gnomes
Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

  • Atmospheric Transient Luminous Events

    • Optical counterpart of upper atmosphere electromagnetic phenomena

  • Reports on strange and elusive light sources from Aircraft pilots for many years(UFOs included)

  • First measurement in 1990

  • Dedicated programs since 1995

    • EUSO proposal

  • From space 2000-2002

  • Extreme Upper atmosphere Space Observatory ?

  • Can ULTRA/BABY Contribute ? Open discussion

  • Didier Lebrun


    Elves sprites gnomes1
    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    • Upper atmosphere flashes

      • Electrical discharges from 20 km to 100 km

        • From CLOUDS to “AIRGLOW”

  • N2 fluorescence highly concerned

    • Usually observed in N2(1P) band

      • Also in 2P and N2+(1N)

  • EUSO Background and/or study

    • Few milliseconds duration (shorter sprites ?)

    • Frequency ?

  • Terrestrial Gamma Ray Bursts

  • Didier Lebrun


    Elves sprites gnomes2
    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    Electro-Magnetic Pulse

    E

    “bad” vacuum

    ~ Paschen law

    C-G Lightning

    Also: Schumann resonances

    Didier Lebrun


    Elves sprites gnomes3
    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    Plasma tube

    Discharge “zoology”

    ELF : Reflected

    Extreme Low Frequency

    Radio signals

    ELVES:

    Emission of Light and

    VLF perturbations due

    to EMP Sources

    Didier Lebrun


    Elves sprites gnomes4
    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    Frequency

    Estimation from Ground, Aircraft, Balloon, Shuttle observations & relative frequency

    with + CG storm lightning

    1 / second. World wide

    In EUSO : 1.8*e / revolution

    MEIDEX on Shuttle

    Didier Lebrun


    Lightnings
    Lightnings

    Didier Lebrun


    Elves sprites gnomes5
    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    N2 fluorescence

    Didier Lebrun


    Elves sprites gnomes6
    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    N2 fluorescence

    • “Colour” characterizes energetics

      • NUV and Blue

        • 1N+/2P ~ 1 Lightning

        • 1N+/2P ~ 2 Sprite

        • 1N+/2P ~ 3 Elf

    • “Colour” characterizes age

      • Blue (<100ms-1 ms) to Red (~1-10 ms)

        • Longer than 100 ms for Blue Jets

    Didier Lebrun


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    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    Luminosity

    Estimated energy transfer to upper Atmosphere

    1 GJ /event

    Observed by UAF95 and EXL98 in 400-700nm

    1.8 1023 Photons / Sprite

    Didier Lebrun


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    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    Runaway model

    Didier Lebrun


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    Elves, Sprites & Gnomes

    g Ray Bursts

    CGRO/BATSE

    Didier Lebrun


    Euso ultra
    EUSO/ULTRA ?

    • Many programs worldwide

      • Space missions on Shuttle, ISS and free

        • Example : CNES LSO, DEMETER, TARANIS…

        • Link to optical airglow survey

          • “Gravity waves”

          • Earthquake precursors

    • Ground Observation ?

    • What in 2009 ?

    Didier Lebrun


    • Earth- Atmosphere-Ionosphere Interaction

      • Electrical balance & Energy transfer (global warming)

      • Chemical aspects (Ozone,,NO formation)

      • Meteo

      • Geophysics volcanoes and earthquakes

      • …..Defense (world wide survey,

  • Sun-Earth interaction and planetary science

  • Role of cosmic rays as a seed

  • Didier Lebrun


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