Chapter 5
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CHAPTER 5. Integumentary System. Integumentary System. Skin Also called integument or cutaneous membrane Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous layer. Integumentary System. Accessory structures Hair Nails Glands. Layers and Structures of the Skin. Structure of the Nail. Question.

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CHAPTER 5

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Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5

Integumentary System


Integumentary system

Integumentary System

  • Skin

    • Also called integument or cutaneous membrane

    • Epidermis

    • Dermis

    • Subcutaneous layer


Integumentary system1

Integumentary System

  • Accessory structures

    • Hair

    • Nails

    • Glands


Layers and structures of the skin

Layers and Structures of the Skin


Structure of the nail

Structure of the Nail


Question

Question

True or False: The epidermal layer contains most of the skin's vital structures.


Question1

Question

The half-moon we see at the base of our fingernails is called the _______.

  • cuticle

  • lunula

  • nail bed

  • edge


Skin lesions

Skin Lesions

  • Abrasion

    • Scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of friction to the area

      • Example: carpet burn

  • Abscess

    • Localized collection of pus in any body part that results from invasion of pus-forming bacteria

      • Example: pustule = small abscess


Skin lesions1

Skin Lesions

  • Blister

    • Small, thin-walled lesion containing clear fluid

    • Also known as a vesicle

  • Bulla

    • Large blister


Skin lesions2

Skin Lesions

  • Carbuncle

    • Circumscribed inflammation of skin and deeper tissues; contains pus

  • Comedo

    • Typical lesion of acne vulgaris

      • Example: whitehead = closed comedo

      • Example: blackhead = open comedo


Skin lesions3

Skin Lesions

  • Cyst

    • Closed sac or pouch in or within the skin; contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material

      • Example: hydrocele = fluid-filled cyst

      • Example: sebaceous cyst = solid-filled cyst


Skin lesions4

Skin Lesions

  • Fissure

    • Crack-like sore or groove in the skin or mucous membrane

      • Example: anal fissure

  • Fistula

    • Abnormal passageway between two tubular organs, or from an organ to the body surface

      • Example: rectovaginal fistula


Skin lesions5

Skin Lesions

  • Hives

    • Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesions on skin; paler in center than surrounding edges

    • Also called wheals

      • Example: mosquito bite

  • Laceration

    • Tear in skin; torn, jagged wound


Skin lesions6

Skin Lesions

  • Macule

    • Small, flat discoloration of the skin; neither raised nor depressed

      • Example: bruises, freckles

  • Nodule

    • Small, circumscribed swelling protruding above the skin


Skin lesions7

Skin Lesions

  • Papule

    • Small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin

      • Example: pimple, wart, elevated mole

  • Polyp

    • Small, stalk-like growth, protruding upward or outward from membrane surface

      • Example: nasal polyp


Skin lesions8

Skin Lesions

  • Pustule

    • Small elevation of skin filled with pus

      • Example: small abscess on the skin

  • Scales

    • Thin flakes of hardened epithelium that are shed from the epidermis


Skin lesions9

Skin Lesions

  • Ulcer

    • Circumscribed, open sore or lesion of skin, accompanied by inflammation

      • Example: decubitus ulcer

  • Vesicle

    • Small, thin-walled lesion containing clear fluid

      • Example: blister


Skin lesions10

Skin Lesions

  • Wheal

    • Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion of the skin

    • Paler in center than surrounding edges

      • Example: hives


Question2

Question

Notice that sometimes 2 different terms are used to describe the same thing. For instance, if a physician says a patient has hives, this patient also has:

  • comedos

  • papules

  • cysts

  • wheals


Question3

Question

A patient has a rash consisting of both macules and papules. What would be the combined adjective form?

  • maculepapular

  • papulemacular

  • papulomacular

  • maculopapular

  • c and d


Pathological conditions

PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Integumentary System


Acne vulgaris

Acne Vulgaris

  • Pronounced

    • (ACK-nee vul-GAY-ris)

  • Defined

    • Common inflammatory disorder seen on face, chest, back, and neck

    • Appears as papules, pustules, and comedos


Albinism

Albinism

  • Pronounced

    • (AL-bin-izm)

  • Defined

    • Condition characterized by absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes


Burns

Burns

  • Defined

    • Tissue injury produced by flame, heat, chemicals, radiation, electricity, or gases

    • Extent of damage determined by:

      • Mode and duration of exposure

      • Thermal intensity or temperature

      • Anatomic site of the burn


Burns1

Burns

  • First-degree (superficial) burns

    • Example: sunburn

  • Second-degree (partial-thickness) burns

    • Example: flash contact with hot objects

  • Third-degree (full-thickness) burns

    • Example: deep burns from a fire


Callus

Callus

  • Pronounced

    • (CAL-us)

  • Defined

    • Common, usually painless thickening of the epidermis at sites of external pressure or friction, such as weight-bearing areas of the feet and on the palmar surface of the hands

    • Also known as a callosity


Question4

Question

True or False: The higher the degree rating, the deeper the burn.


Carcinoma basal cell

Carcinoma, Basal Cell

  • Pronounced

    • (car-sih-NOH-mah BAY-sal sell)

  • Defined

    • A malignant epithelial cell tumor

    • Begins as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center


Carcinoma basal cell1

Carcinoma, Basal Cell

  • Defined

    • As the depression enlarges, the tissue breaks down, crusts, and bleeds

    • Most common malignant tumor of epithelial tissue; occurs most often on skin exposed to the sun


Carcinoma basal cell2

Carcinoma, Basal Cell

  • Image courtesy of Robert A. Silverman, M.D., Pediatric Dermatology, Georgetown University


Carcinoma squamous cell

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

  • Pronounced

    • (car-sih-NOH-mah SKWAY-mus sell )

  • Defined

    • Malignancy of the squamous, or scale-like, cells of the epithelial tissue

    • Much faster growing than basal cell carcinoma

    • Greater potential for metastasis if not treated


Carcinoma squamous cell1

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

  • Frequent sites on sun-exposed areas

    • Top of nose

    • Forehead

    • Margin of external ear

    • Back of hands

    • Lower lip


Question5

Question

True or False: Basal cell carcinoma does not originate in the epithelial layer.


Dermatitis

Dermatitis

  • Pronounced

    • (der-mah-TYE-tis)

  • Defined

    • Inflammation of skin, seen in several different forms

    • Acute or chronic

    • Contact or seborrheic


Eczema

Eczema

  • Pronounced

    • (EK-zeh-mah)

  • Defined

    • Acute or chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs, and itching


Exanthematous viral diseases

Exanthematous Viral Diseases

  • Pronounced

    • (eks-an-THEM-ah-tus VYE-ral dih-ZEEZ-ez)

  • Defined

    • Skin eruption or rash accompanied by inflammation, having specific diagnostic features of an infectious viral disease


Exanthematous viral diseases1

Exanthematous Viral Diseases

  • Examples

    • Rubella = German measles = 3-day measles

    • Roseola infantum

    • Rubeola = red measles = 7- to 10-day measles

    • Erythema infectiosum = fifth disease


Gangrene

Gangrene

  • Pronounced

    • (GANG-green)

  • Defined

    • Tissue death due to loss of adequate blood supply, invasion of bacteria; subsequent decay with foul odor


Herpes zoster

Herpes Zoster

  • Pronounced

    • (HER-peez ZOS-ter)

  • Defined

    • Acute viral infection, characterized by painful, vesicular eruptions on the skin that follow along nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves

    • Highest incidence in adults over 50


Herpes zoster1

Herpes Zoster

Image courtesy of Robert A. Silverman,

M.D., Pediatric Dermatology,

Georgetown University


Impetigo

Impetigo

  • Pronounced

    • (im-peh-TYE-goh)

  • Defined

    • Contagious superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles and pustules filled with millions of staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria

      • Usually forming on the face


Question6

Question

This viral infection is derived from a childhood disease, and then it most commonly flares up after age 50 along nerve pathways:

  • eczema

  • rubeola

  • Herpes zoster

  • impetigo


Kaposi s sarcoma

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

  • Pronounced

    • (KAP-oh-seez sar-KOH-ma)

  • Defined

    • Rare malignant lesions beginning as soft purple-brown nodules or plaques on the feet

    • Gradually spreads throughout skin

    • Increased incidence in men with AIDS


Keloid

Keloid

  • Pronounced

    • (KEE-loyd)

  • Defined

    • Enlarged, irregularly shaped, elevated scar that forms due to the presence of large amounts of collagen during formation of a scar


Keratosis

Keratosis

  • Pronounced

    • (kair-ah-TOH-sis)

  • Defined

    • Skin condition in which there is a thickening and overgrowth of the cornified epithelium


Seborrheic keratosis

Seborrheic Keratosis

  • Pronounced

    • (seb-oh-REE-ik kair-ah-TOH-sis)

  • Defined

    • Brown or waxy yellow, wart-like lesions that are loosely attached to the skin

    • Also known as senile warts


Actinic keratosis

Actinic Keratosis

  • Pronounced

    • (ak-TIN-ic kair-ah-TOH-sis)

  • Defined

    • Premalignant, gray or red-to-brown, hardened lesion caused by excessive exposure to sunlight

    • Also known as solar keratosis


Leukoplakia

Leukoplakia

  • Pronounced

    • (loo-koh-PLAY-kee-ah)

  • Defined

    • White, hard, thickened patches firmly attached to the mucous membrane

      • In mouth, vulva, or penis


Question7

Question

True or False: Keratosis literally means condition of a horny-like growth in the upper layer of skin, like a wart or callus.


Malignant melanoma

Malignant Melanoma

  • Pronounced

    • (mah-LIG-nant mel-ah-NOH-mah)

  • Defined

    • Malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexisting nevi, freckles, or skin with pigment

    • Darkly pigmented tumor with irregular surfaces and borders; variable colors


Abcds of malignant melanomas

ABCDs of Malignant Melanomas

  • Asymmetry

  • Borders

  • Color

  • Diameter


Nevus

Nevus

  • Pronounced

    • (NEV-us)

  • Defined

    • Visual accumulation of melanocytes, creating a flat or raised rounded macule or papule with definite borders

    • Commonly known as a mole


Question8

Question

Based on the definition of melanoma, what is the actual meaning of melan-?

  • dark pigment

  • light pigment

  • blue pigment

  • white pigment


Onychocryptosis

Onychocryptosis

  • Pronounced

    • (on-ih-koh-krip-TOH-sis)

  • Defined

    • Ingrown nail

      • Most commonly involves the large toe


Onychomycosis

Onychomycosis

  • Pronounced

    • (on-ih-koh-my-KOH-sis)

  • Defined

    • Fungal infection of the nails


Pediculosis

Pediculosis

  • Pronounced

    • (pee-dik-you-LOH-sis)

  • Defined

    • Highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by blood-sucking lice


Pediculosis1

Pediculosis

  • Pediculosis capitis

    • Head

  • Pediculosis corporis

    • Body


Pediculosis2

Pediculosis

  • Pediculosis palpebrarum

    • Eyelashes and eyelids

  • Pediculosis pubis

    • Pubic hair


Pemphigus

Pemphigus

  • Pronounced

    • (PEM-fih-gus)

  • Defined

    • Rare, incurable disorder manifested by blisters in the mouth and on the skin

    • Spreads to involve large areas of the body


Pilonidal cyst

Pilonidal Cyst

  • Pronounced

    • (pye-loh-NYE-dal SIST)

  • Defined

    • Closed sac located in the sacrococcygeal area of the back

    • Sometimes noted at birth as a dimple


Psoriasis

Psoriasis

  • Pronounced

    • (soh-RYE-ah-sis)

  • Defined

    • Common, noninfectious, chronic skin disorder manifested by silvery-white scales over round, raised, reddened plaques producing itching

    • Pruritus


Psoriasis1

Psoriasis

  • Image courtesy of Robert A. Silverman, M.D., Pediatric Dermatology, Georgetown University


Question9

Question

True or False: Pilus means hair and nidus means nest; therefore, a pilonidal cyst probably literally means a fluid “nest” containing hair.


Rosacea

Rosacea

  • Pronounced

    • (roh-ZAY-she-ah)

  • Defined

    • Chronic inflammatory skin disease that mainly affects the skin of the middle third of the face

    • Characterized by persistent redness over areas of the face, nose, and cheeks


Scabies

Scabies

  • Pronounced

    • (SKAY-beez)

  • Defined

    • Highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by the “human itch mite”

    • Resulting in a rash, pruritus, and a feeling in the skin of “something crawling”


Scleroderma

Scleroderma

  • Pronounced

    • (sklair-oh-DER-mah)

  • Defined

    • Gradual thickening of the dermis and swelling of the hands and feet to a state in which the skin is anchored to the underlying tissue


Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Pronounced

    • (sis-TEM-ic LOO-pus air-ih-them-ah-TOH-sus)

  • Defined

    • Chronic, multisystem inflammatory disease characterized by lesions of the nervous system and skin, renal problems, and vasculitis

    • Characteristic “butterfly rash” is often seen on nose and face


Tinea

Tinea

  • Pronounced

    • (TIN-ee-ah)

  • Defined

    • Chronic fungal infection of the skin

    • Characterized by scaling, itching, and sometimes painful lesions


Tinea1

Tinea

  • Tinea capitis

    • Scalp

  • Tinea corporis

    • Body


Tinea2

Tinea

  • Tinea cruris

    • Groin

  • Tinea pedis

    • Foot


Verruca

Verruca

  • Pronounced

    • (ver-ROO-kah)

  • Defined

    • Benign, circumscribed, elevated skin lesion that results from hypertrophy of the epidermis

    • Commonly known as a wart


Verruca1

Verruca

  • Verruca vulgaris

    • Common wart on face, elbow, fingers, or hands

  • Plantar warts

    • Singly or in clusters on the sole of the foot


Verruca2

Verruca

  • Venereal warts

    • Transmitted by sexual contact

  • Seborrheic warts

    • Seen in the elderly on the face, neck, chest, or upper back


Question10

Question

When people say they can feel their skin crawl, perhaps they have this condition where a tiny bug is the culprit?

  • verruca vulgaris

  • dermatitis

  • scabies

  • rosacea


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures

DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS, AND PROCEDURES

Integumentary System


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures1

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Allergy testing

    • Various procedures used to identify specific allergens in an individual by exposing the person to a very small quantity of the allergen

      • ImmunoCAP Allergy Blood Test more advanced, convenient, and reliable

  • Cautery

    • Heat or caustic substances that burn and scar the skin


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures2

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Cryosurgery

    • Noninvasive treatment that uses subfreezing temperature to freeze and destroy tissue

  • Curettage and electrodesiccation

    • Scraping away of abnormal tissue, followed by destroying the tumor base with a low-voltage electrode


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures3

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Debridement

    • Removal of debris, foreign objects, and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing

  • Dermabrasion

    • Removal of the epidermis and a portion of the dermis with sandpaper or brushes in order to eliminate superficial scars of unwanted tattoos


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures4

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Dermatoplasty

    • Skin transplantation to a body surface damaged by injury or disease

  • Electrodesiccation

    • Technique using an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue

    • Also known as fulguration


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures5

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Electrosurgery

    • Removal or destruction of tissue with an electrical current

  • Escharotomy

    • Incision made into the necrotic tissue resulting from a severe burn


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures6

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Liposuction

    • Aspiration of fat through a suction cannula or curette to alter the body contours

  • Skin biopsy

    • Removal of a small piece of tissue from skin lesions for examination under a microscope to confirm or establish a diagnosis


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures7

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Skin graft

    • Process of placing tissue on a recipient site, taken from a donor site, in order to provide the protective mechanisms of skin to an area unable to regenerate skin

  • Wood’s lamp

    • Ultraviolet light that is used to examine the scalp and skin for the purpose of observing fungal spores


Question11

Question

True or False: A person with third-degree burns would benefit from a dermatoplasty.


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