Chapter 12 liver gallbladder and pancreas diseases and disorders
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Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals

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Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders

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Chapter 12 liver gallbladder and pancreas diseases and disorders

Chapter 12Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders


Anatomy and physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

  • Liver

    • Largest solid organ in the body

    • Plays role in:

      • Digestion

      • Absorption

      • Metabolism


Anatomy and physiology1

Anatomy and Physiology

  • Liver

    • Plays role in

      • Blood clotting

      • Manufacture of important chemicals

      • Storage of nutrients


Anatomy and physiology2

Anatomy and Physiology

  • Gallbladder stores bile until needed

  • Pancreas produces and excretes most of the intestinal enzymes


Common signs and symptoms

Common Signs and Symptoms

  • Liver Disease

    • Jaundice

    • Pain is the most common symptom


Diagnostic tests

Diagnostic Tests

  • Liver function tests measure bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase

  • Ultrasound, X-rays, CAT scan

  • Biopsy

  • Blood tests to measure pancreatic function


Liver diseases

Liver Diseases

  • Hepatitis

    • Inflammation of the liver

    • Causes include chemical actions of drugs, toxic substances, chronic alcoholism, group of viruses

    • Viral hepatitis is the most prevalent


Liver diseases1

Liver Diseases

  • Hepatitis

    • Symptoms

      • Jaundice

      • Malaise

      • Anorexia

      • Myalgia


Liver diseases2

Liver Diseases

  • Hepatitis

    • Symptoms

      • Fever

      • Abdominal pain

      • Dark-colored urine (hepatomegaly)

      • Clay or light-colored stools


Liver diseases3

Liver Diseases

  • Hepatitis

    • Treatment

      • Rest

      • Good nutrition

    • Prevention

      • Good hygiene

      • Special care when handling needles and body fluids


Liver diseases4

Liver Diseases

  • Viral Hepatitis occurs in five types

    • A, B, C, D, E

  • Hepatitis A: benign; spread by oral-fecal contact

  • Hepatitis B: formerly called “serum hepatitis” spread by blood, urine, feces, saliva, and semen


Liver diseases5

Liver Diseases

  • Hepatitis C: spread by blood or sex

  • Hepatitis D: “delta virus” requires presence of hepatitis B to replicate

  • Hepatitis E: spread through fecal-oral contact, commonly due to water contamination


Liver diseases6

Liver Diseases

  • Cirrhosis

    • Chronic, irreversible, degenerative

    • Replacement of normal liver cells with nonfunctioning scar tissue called “hobnail liver”


Liver diseases7

Liver Diseases

  • Cirrhosis

    • Most common cause is chronic alcoholism

    • Symptoms

      • Loss of appetite

      • Nausea

      • Indigestion

      • Weakness and weight loss


Liver disease

Liver Disease

  • Liver Cancer

    • Primary and benign tumors of liver are rare

    • Usually discovered late or end stage

    • Diagnosis confirmed by biopsy

    • Treatment may involve surgery, radiation, chemotherapy


Gallbladder diseases

Gallbladder Diseases

  • Cholecystitis

    • Inflammation of gallbladder usually caused by obstruction of bile due to gallstone

    • Diagnosis is made by ultrasound, cholecystogram


Gallbladder diseases1

Gallbladder Diseases

  • Cholecystitis

    • Symptoms

      • Mild to severe RUQ pain

      • Nausea and vomiting after eating

    • Treatment surgical excision


Gallbladder diseases2

Gallbladder Diseases

  • Cholelithiasis

    • Gallstones in gallbladder or bile ducts

    • Symptoms

      • Nausea

      • Vomiting

      • RUQ pain following meals with fat


Gallbladder diseases3

Gallbladder Diseases

  • Cholelithiasis

    • Risk factors include excessive weight, increasing age, female


Gallbladder diseases4

Gallbladder Diseases

  • Cholelithiasis

    • 5 F’s of cholelithiasis

      • Female

      • Fair complexion

      • Fat

      • Fertile

      • Forty or older


Pancreas diseases

Pancreas Diseases

  • Pancreatitis - Inflammation of pancreas

    • Symptoms

      • Severe abdominal pain radiating to back

      • Nausea

      • Vomiting

      • Diaphoresis

      • Tachycardia


Pancreas diseases1

Pancreas Diseases

  • Pancreatitis

    • Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are similar to acute

    • Diagnosis is based on high blood amylase

    • Treatment and prognosis depends on cause


Pancreas diseases2

Pancreas Diseases

  • Pancreas Cancer

    • Usually adenocarcinoma occurring in head of pancreas

    • Symptoms:

      • Abdominal pain

      • Back pain

      • Nausea

      • Vomiting


Pancreas diseases3

Pancreas Diseases

  • Pancreas Cancer

    • Symptoms

      • Loss of appetite

      • Weakness

      • Jaundice

      • Fatigue


Pancreas diseases4

Pancreas Diseases

  • Pancreas Cancer

    • Diagnosis confirmed by biopsy

    • Treatment

      • Surgical resection

      • Radiation and chemotherapy


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