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Agents as the realisers of organisations. Catholijn M. Jonker http://www.nici.ru.nl/~catholj. vrije Universiteit amsterdam. Overview. The need for organisation modelling Organisation modelling Dynamics of organisations Organisational awareness The human perspective

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agents as the realisers of organisations

Agents as the realisers of organisations

Catholijn M. Jonker

http://www.nici.ru.nl/~catholj

vrijeUniversiteitamsterdam

overview
Overview
  • The need for organisation modelling
  • Organisation modelling
    • Dynamics of organisations
    • Organisational awareness
  • The human perspective
  • Modelling language(s) should have …
  • Conclusions
the need for organisation modelling
The need for organisation modelling
  • Open, heterogeneous environments
    • Humans are part of the organisation
    • Strength of MAS: different concerns represented by different agents
  • Legacy systems
  • Agents versus roles
    • Agents play different roles over time
    • Several agents play the same role at the same time
    • Agents play several roles at the same time
  • Divide and Conquer: levels of aggregation
organisation modeling approach
Organisation Modeling Approach
  • Structure & levels of aggregation
    • AGR: Groups, roles, interactions
    • Instances
  • (Emergent) behaviour of
    • Parts of the organisation
    • The organisation as a whole
    • Interaction
  • Allocation of agents to roles
  • And of course:
    • Requirements, agent design, simulation
    • Implementation, validation, verification
agent group role ferber gutknecht

Arnie

Trade

Auction

Seller

Buyer

Buyer

Bernie

Master

Buyer

Don

Boss

Porter

Charlie

Auction House

Ernie

Agent / Group / Role (Ferber, Gutknecht)
aggregation levels

Arnie

Group 1

Role 1

Role 2

Bernie

Role 6

Role 7

Group 3

Ernie

Aggregation Levels
  • Organisation
  • Groups & inter-group interactions
  • Roles & inter-role interactions
  • Agents & allocation to roles
temporal trace language
Temporal Trace Language
  • State expressions
    • belief(φ, pos)
  • Dynamic expressions
    • Trace and time stamped state expressions:

state(, t, A) |= belief(φ, pos)

    • Dynamic relations between states:

 , t :state(, t, B) |= communication_to(A, φ, pos)

 state(, t+1, A) |= belief(φ, pos)

properties at different levels of aggregation

organization properties

group properties

inter-group interaction properties

transfer properties

role properties

allocation properties

agent properties

Properties at different levels of aggregation
dynamics of organisations
Dynamics of organisations
  • Structural changes
    • Who monitors?
    • Who initiates change?
    • Self-organisation or “God-given”?
  • Behavioural changes
    • Roles, groups, interactions, organisation
    • Emergent behaviour
  • Agent-role allocations change
organisational awareness
Organisational awareness
  • Full awareness:
    • Every role is aware of (part of) the organisation
    • Example: team sports
  • Partial awareness:
    • Only some roles are aware of the organisation.
    • Examples: Industry, terrorist organisation
  • No awareness:
    • No one needs to be aware of the organisation, but changes occur anyway
    • Example: Put people in a strange situation and observe!
full awareness navy example
Full Awareness: Navy example

Navy: flexibility to take over tasks from others.

  • Ranks:
    • commander, lieutenant, …
  • Operational roles:
    • OTC, anti submarine warfare commander, high value unit, …
  • Operation-Strategic groups:
    • Screen, Scouts, Defenders, …
  • Operational functional groups:
    • fleet, task force, task group, …
  • Operational regions:
    • zulu zulu
simulation v v
Simulation & V & V
  • Executable logic
    • Past & current imply future
    • LeadsTo logic
  • Simulate
  • Check non-executable properties
  • Prove inter-level relations between properties
leadsto
LeadsTo

if  holds for a time interval with duration g,

then after some delay (between e and f)  will hold for a time interval of length h.

the human perspective
The human perspective
  • Aspects of humans involved
    • Cognitive capabilities
    • Concerns wrt to the system under development
    • Views on the system
  • Humans as part of the organisation
  • Humans involved
    • Organisation designer,
    • Stakeholders,
    • Domain experts,
    • HCI designer,
    • Role player,
    • Investor, …
model warehouse
Model Warehouse
  • Content:
    • Models of different aspects of the system
  • Structure: Views
    • of the different humans involved
    • focussing on different aspects
  • Presentation of a view:
    • Presentation of models + orchestration
    • Appropriate medium (textual, visual, physical, …)
  • Transformations of:
    • Models
    • Views
    • Presentation
    • Guard, advice & describe during engineering process
modelling language s should have
Modelling language(s) should have …
  • Organisational concepts & semantics
    • (organisation, group, role, key performance indicators, …)
  • Levels of conceptualisation:
    • show the essence of the organisation
    • catch the complexity of the organisation
  • Agent concepts & semantics
  • Representation
    • Scalable
    • Cognitive appropriate
    • Views per purpose
    • Behaviour and change
scalability and cognition
Scalability and Cognition
  • Model as a means of communication
    • Stakeholders
    • Team of developers from different specialities
      • Requirement engineers,
      • MAS / Organisation designers,
      • Domain experts,
      • HCI designers,
      • Programmers, …
    • Investors
    • Public Relations
  • Software support
representing behaviour and change
Representing Behaviour and Change
  • Changes in structure
  • Behaviour in a given structural state
  • Changes in behaviour:
    • role behaviour (organisational learning/adaptation)
    • agent behaviour (learning, damage, death),
    • agent allocation
    • group behaviour (organisational learning/adaptation)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Organisational modelling
    • The next level of abstraction from agents
    • Structure & behaviour
    • Agents are the realisers of organisations
    • Capture the dynamics & complexity
  • Humans inside!
    • Modelling: cognitive abilities
    • Views: cognitive abilities
    • Playing roles in the organisation
  • Open, hybrid systems
  • Organisation models are meant to
    • View the organisation from different viewpoints
    • Means for communication between those involved
    • Organisational awareness
  • Specification languages are to help those using them
    • Different needs -> different aspects -> different language
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