Agents as the realisers of organisations
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Agents as the realisers of organisations. Catholijn M. Jonker http://www.nici.ru.nl/~catholj. vrije Universiteit amsterdam. Overview. The need for organisation modelling Organisation modelling Dynamics of organisations Organisational awareness The human perspective

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Agents as the realisers of organisations

Agents as the realisers of organisations

Catholijn M. Jonker

http://www.nici.ru.nl/~catholj

vrijeUniversiteitamsterdam


Overview

Overview

  • The need for organisation modelling

  • Organisation modelling

    • Dynamics of organisations

    • Organisational awareness

  • The human perspective

  • Modelling language(s) should have …

  • Conclusions


The need for organisation modelling

The need for organisation modelling

  • Open, heterogeneous environments

    • Humans are part of the organisation

    • Strength of MAS: different concerns represented by different agents

  • Legacy systems

  • Agents versus roles

    • Agents play different roles over time

    • Several agents play the same role at the same time

    • Agents play several roles at the same time

  • Divide and Conquer: levels of aggregation


Organisation modeling approach

Organisation Modeling Approach

  • Structure & levels of aggregation

    • AGR: Groups, roles, interactions

    • Instances

  • (Emergent) behaviour of

    • Parts of the organisation

    • The organisation as a whole

    • Interaction

  • Allocation of agents to roles

  • And of course:

    • Requirements, agent design, simulation

    • Implementation, validation, verification


Agent group role ferber gutknecht

Arnie

Trade

Auction

Seller

Buyer

Buyer

Bernie

Master

Buyer

Don

Boss

Porter

Charlie

Auction House

Ernie

Agent / Group / Role (Ferber, Gutknecht)


Aggregation levels

Arnie

Group 1

Role 1

Role 2

Bernie

Role 6

Role 7

Group 3

Ernie

Aggregation Levels

  • Organisation

  • Groups & inter-group interactions

  • Roles & inter-role interactions

  • Agents & allocation to roles


Temporal trace language

Temporal Trace Language

  • State expressions

    • belief(φ, pos)

  • Dynamic expressions

    • Trace and time stamped state expressions:

      state(, t, A) |= belief(φ, pos)

    • Dynamic relations between states:

       , t :state(, t, B) |= communication_to(A, φ, pos)

       state(, t+1, A) |= belief(φ, pos)


Properties at different levels of aggregation

organization properties

group properties

inter-group interaction properties

transfer properties

role properties

allocation properties

agent properties

Properties at different levels of aggregation


Dynamics of organisations

Dynamics of organisations

  • Structural changes

    • Who monitors?

    • Who initiates change?

    • Self-organisation or “God-given”?

  • Behavioural changes

    • Roles, groups, interactions, organisation

    • Emergent behaviour

  • Agent-role allocations change


Organisational awareness

Organisational awareness

  • Full awareness:

    • Every role is aware of (part of) the organisation

    • Example: team sports

  • Partial awareness:

    • Only some roles are aware of the organisation.

    • Examples: Industry, terrorist organisation

  • No awareness:

    • No one needs to be aware of the organisation, but changes occur anyway

    • Example: Put people in a strange situation and observe!


Full awareness navy example

Full Awareness: Navy example

Navy: flexibility to take over tasks from others.

  • Ranks:

    • commander, lieutenant, …

  • Operational roles:

    • OTC, anti submarine warfare commander, high value unit, …

  • Operation-Strategic groups:

    • Screen, Scouts, Defenders, …

  • Operational functional groups:

    • fleet, task force, task group, …

  • Operational regions:

    • zulu zulu


Total steam failure during a mission

No propulsion

Total Steam Failure during a mission


Simulation v v

Simulation & V & V

  • Executable logic

    • Past & current imply future

    • LeadsTo logic

  • Simulate

  • Check non-executable properties

  • Prove inter-level relations between properties


Leadsto

LeadsTo

if  holds for a time interval with duration g,

then after some delay (between e and f)  will hold for a time interval of length h.


Visualization

Visualization


The human perspective

The human perspective

  • Aspects of humans involved

    • Cognitive capabilities

    • Concerns wrt to the system under development

    • Views on the system

  • Humans as part of the organisation

  • Humans involved

    • Organisation designer,

    • Stakeholders,

    • Domain experts,

    • HCI designer,

    • Role player,

    • Investor, …


Model warehouse

Model Warehouse

  • Content:

    • Models of different aspects of the system

  • Structure: Views

    • of the different humans involved

    • focussing on different aspects

  • Presentation of a view:

    • Presentation of models + orchestration

    • Appropriate medium (textual, visual, physical, …)

  • Transformations of:

    • Models

    • Views

    • Presentation

    • Guard, advice & describe during engineering process


Modelling language s should have

Modelling language(s) should have …

  • Organisational concepts & semantics

    • (organisation, group, role, key performance indicators, …)

  • Levels of conceptualisation:

    • show the essence of the organisation

    • catch the complexity of the organisation

  • Agent concepts & semantics

  • Representation

    • Scalable

    • Cognitive appropriate

    • Views per purpose

    • Behaviour and change


Scalability and cognition

Scalability and Cognition

  • Model as a means of communication

    • Stakeholders

    • Team of developers from different specialities

      • Requirement engineers,

      • MAS / Organisation designers,

      • Domain experts,

      • HCI designers,

      • Programmers, …

    • Investors

    • Public Relations

  • Software support


Representing behaviour and change

Representing Behaviour and Change

  • Changes in structure

  • Behaviour in a given structural state

  • Changes in behaviour:

    • role behaviour (organisational learning/adaptation)

    • agent behaviour (learning, damage, death),

    • agent allocation

    • group behaviour (organisational learning/adaptation)


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Organisational modelling

    • The next level of abstraction from agents

    • Structure & behaviour

    • Agents are the realisers of organisations

    • Capture the dynamics & complexity

  • Humans inside!

    • Modelling: cognitive abilities

    • Views: cognitive abilities

    • Playing roles in the organisation

  • Open, hybrid systems

  • Organisation models are meant to

    • View the organisation from different viewpoints

    • Means for communication between those involved

    • Organisational awareness

  • Specification languages are to help those using them

    • Different needs -> different aspects -> different language


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