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Chapter 3 States of Matter. Chemistry 1. Solids, Liquids, and Gases 3.1. Describe the States of Matter 3.1. Use shape and volume as clues to which state Solids – Definite shape and volume Liquids- Definite volume, no definite shape Gases – No definite shape or volume Other States:

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describe the states of matter 3 1
Describe the States of Matter 3.1
  • Use shape and volume as clues to which state
  • Solids – Definite shape and volume
  • Liquids- Definite volume, no definite shape
  • Gases – No definite shape or volume
  • Other States:
    • 99% of matter in the universe is plasma
      • Found on the sun and stars
      • Extremely high temperatures
    • Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) – 5th state of matter that exists at extremely low temperature where atoms behave as a single particle – predicted by Bose in 1920s and Einstein decades before
      • 1st produced at CU in 1995
slide5

Amorphous Solids

    • •Solid or liquid??
    • •Do not have crystals!
    • •Can and will “flow” over time.
    • •Example: glass, wax, plastic
    • •Small temperature changes affect these (plastic on a cold day)
    • •Officially, these are liquids!!!
kinetic theory 3 1
Kinetic Theory 3.1
  • Energy an object has due to its motion
  • An object that moves has ke
  • The faster object moves, the greater the ke
  • All particles of matter are in constant motion
explaining the behavior of gases 3 1
Explaining the Behavior of Gases 3.1
  • Motion in Gases
    • Particles never at rest
    • Average speed of particles is 1600 km/hr
    • Atoms moves in straight line until collides with something
    • Collision – 1 atom loses ke and slows down; other atom gains ke and speeds up
kinetic theory of gases 3 1
Kinetic Theory of Gases 3.1
  • Particles in a gas are in constant, random motion
  • Motion of 1 particle, unaffected unless particles collide
  • Forces of attraction ignored under normally conditions
explaining the behavior of liquids 3 1
Explaining the Behavior of Liquids 3.1
  • Particles always moving
    • Move slower than a gas particle
      • Greater mass = slower speed
      • More closely packed particles
      • Force of attraction to keep particles close together
explaining the behavior of solids 3 1
Explaining the Behavior of Solids 3.1
  • Particles vibrate around a fixed location
  • Strong attraction among particles
pressure 3 2
Pressure 3.2
  • The result of a force distributed ovan an area
  • SI unit = force/area
    • Force = Newtons (N)
    • Area = square meters (m2)
    • N/m2 = Pascal (Pa)
factors that affect gas pressure 3 2
Factors that Affect Gas Pressure 3.2
  • Temperature
    • Increase in temp ke increases  particles collide more  increase in pressure
    • Think of tires in a car
  • Volume
    • Reducing volume, increases pressure
    • Think of your lungs
  • Number of particles
    • Increasing particles, increases pressure
charles s law 3 2
Charles’s Law 3.2
  • Jacques Charles (1746-1823)
    • Investigated gases
    • Absolute Zero – 0 K
      • No scientist has produced a temp of 0K
  • Volume of gas directly proportional to temp in K if pressure and particles are constant
  • TEMP MUST BE IN KELVIN
  • V1/T1 = V2/T2
boyle s law
Boyle’s Law
  • Robert Boyle –Ireland
    • 1st to describe relationship of pressure and volume of gas
  • Volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure if the temp and the number of particles are constant
  • P1V1=P2V2
combined gas law 3 2
Combined Gas Law 3.2
  • (P1V1)/T1=(P2V2)/T2

http://www.nclark.net/GasLaws

characteristics of phase changes 3 3
Characteristics of Phase Changes 3.3
  • Reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from 1 state of matter to another
  • 6 common phase changes: melting freezing, vaporization condensation, sublimation, and deposition
temperature and phase changes 3 3
Temperature and Phase Changes 3.3
  • The temp of substance does not change during a phase change
energy and phase changes 3 3
Energy and Phase Changes 3.3
  • Energy absorbed or released during a phase change
  • Endothermic – system absorbs energy
    • Ex: melting
    • Heat of Fusion – amount of energy absorbed from a substance
    • Fusion = melting
  • Exothermic – Releases energy
    • Ex: freezing
melting and freezing 3 3
Melting and Freezing 3.3
  • Molecules become less orderly when substance melts and more orderly when substance freezes
  • Melting – heat flows from air to ice, ice gains energy, molecules vibrate more quickly  molecules gain enough energy to move from fixed position
    • Increases average ke
  • Freezing – energy flows from water to air, water cools, average ke decreases, molecules drawn to an orderly position
    • Decreases average ke
vaporization and condensation 3 3
Vaporization and Condensation 3.3
  • Vaporization – liquid to a gas
    • Endothermic process (substance must absorb energy)
    • Heat of Vaporization – Amount of energy it takes to change from a liquid to a gas
    • 2 process: boiling and evaporation
  • Evaporation – Liquid to a gas at temp below boiling point
    • Molecules at the surface moving fast enough to escape the liquid
      • The greater the surface area, the faster the water evaporates
      • Vapor Pressure – pressure caused by the collisions of this vapor and the walls of the container – occurs in a closed container
        • Increases as the temp increases
slide28
Boiling
    • Vapor pressure and temp increases
    • When vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure, water boils
    • Water molecules move faster when heated, bubbles (boiling) are water vapor
      • Water vapor is less dense so bubbles rise
      • Bubbles burst and releases water vapor into the air
    • Boiling point depends on the atmospheric pressure
      • At high elevations, the atmospheric pressure is lower so boiling point is lower… so food takes longer to cook at this lower temp!
slide29
Condensation
    • Phase change in which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid
    • Exothermic process
    • Morning dew
    • Foggy glass after a shower
sublimation and deposition 3 3
Sublimation and Deposition 3.3
  • Sublimation – substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor
    • Endothermic change
    • Ex: dry ice (form of carbon dioxide)
  • Deposition – gas or vapor changes directly into a solid
    • Exothermic change
    • Ex: frost to form on windows
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