Chapter 3 states of matter
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Chapter 3 States of Matter. Chemistry 1. Solids, Liquids, and Gases 3.1. Describe the States of Matter 3.1. Use shape and volume as clues to which state Solids – Definite shape and volume Liquids- Definite volume, no definite shape Gases – No definite shape or volume Other States:

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Chapter 3 States of Matter

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Chapter 3 states of matter

Chapter 3States of Matter

Chemistry 1


Solids liquids and gases 3 1

Solids, Liquids, and Gases 3.1


Describe the states of matter 3 1

Describe the States of Matter 3.1

  • Use shape and volume as clues to which state

  • Solids – Definite shape and volume

  • Liquids- Definite volume, no definite shape

  • Gases – No definite shape or volume

  • Other States:

    • 99% of matter in the universe is plasma

      • Found on the sun and stars

      • Extremely high temperatures

    • Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) – 5th state of matter that exists at extremely low temperature where atoms behave as a single particle – predicted by Bose in 1920s and Einstein decades before

      • 1st produced at CU in 1995


Chapter 3 states of matter

  • Amorphous Solids

    • •Solid or liquid??

    • •Do not have crystals!

    • •Can and will “flow” over time.

    • •Example: glass, wax, plastic

    • •Small temperature changes affect these (plastic on a cold day)

    • •Officially, these are liquids!!!


Kinetic theory 3 1

Kinetic Theory 3.1

  • Energy an object has due to its motion

  • An object that moves has ke

  • The faster object moves, the greater the ke

  • All particles of matter are in constant motion


Explaining the behavior of gases 3 1

Explaining the Behavior of Gases 3.1

  • Motion in Gases

    • Particles never at rest

    • Average speed of particles is 1600 km/hr

    • Atoms moves in straight line until collides with something

    • Collision – 1 atom loses ke and slows down; other atom gains ke and speeds up


Kinetic theory of gases 3 1

Kinetic Theory of Gases 3.1

  • Particles in a gas are in constant, random motion

  • Motion of 1 particle, unaffected unless particles collide

  • Forces of attraction ignored under normally conditions


Explaining the behavior of liquids 3 1

Explaining the Behavior of Liquids 3.1

  • Particles always moving

    • Move slower than a gas particle

      • Greater mass = slower speed

      • More closely packed particles

      • Force of attraction to keep particles close together


Explaining the behavior of solids 3 1

Explaining the Behavior of Solids 3.1

  • Particles vibrate around a fixed location

  • Strong attraction among particles


The gas laws 3 2

The Gas Laws 3.2


Pressure 3 2

Pressure 3.2

  • The result of a force distributed ovan an area

  • SI unit = force/area

    • Force = Newtons (N)

    • Area = square meters (m2)

    • N/m2 = Pascal (Pa)


Factors that affect gas pressure 3 2

Factors that Affect Gas Pressure 3.2

  • Temperature

    • Increase in temp ke increases  particles collide more  increase in pressure

    • Think of tires in a car

  • Volume

    • Reducing volume, increases pressure

    • Think of your lungs

  • Number of particles

    • Increasing particles, increases pressure


Charles s law 3 2

Charles’s Law 3.2

  • Jacques Charles (1746-1823)

    • Investigated gases

    • Absolute Zero – 0 K

      • No scientist has produced a temp of 0K

  • Volume of gas directly proportional to temp in K if pressure and particles are constant

  • TEMP MUST BE IN KELVIN

  • V1/T1 = V2/T2


Boyle s law

Boyle’s Law

  • Robert Boyle –Ireland

    • 1st to describe relationship of pressure and volume of gas

  • Volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure if the temp and the number of particles are constant

  • P1V1=P2V2


Combined gas law 3 2

Combined Gas Law 3.2

  • (P1V1)/T1=(P2V2)/T2

http://www.nclark.net/GasLaws


Phase changes 3 3

Phase Changes 3.3


Characteristics of phase changes 3 3

Characteristics of Phase Changes 3.3

  • Reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from 1 state of matter to another

  • 6 common phase changes: melting freezing, vaporization condensation, sublimation, and deposition


Temperature and phase changes 3 3

Temperature and Phase Changes 3.3

  • The temp of substance does not change during a phase change


Energy and phase changes 3 3

Energy and Phase Changes 3.3

  • Energy absorbed or released during a phase change

  • Endothermic – system absorbs energy

    • Ex: melting

    • Heat of Fusion – amount of energy absorbed from a substance

    • Fusion = melting

  • Exothermic – Releases energy

    • Ex: freezing


Melting and freezing 3 3

Melting and Freezing 3.3

  • Molecules become less orderly when substance melts and more orderly when substance freezes

  • Melting – heat flows from air to ice, ice gains energy, molecules vibrate more quickly  molecules gain enough energy to move from fixed position

    • Increases average ke

  • Freezing – energy flows from water to air, water cools, average ke decreases, molecules drawn to an orderly position

    • Decreases average ke


Vaporization and condensation 3 3

Vaporization and Condensation 3.3

  • Vaporization – liquid to a gas

    • Endothermic process (substance must absorb energy)

    • Heat of Vaporization – Amount of energy it takes to change from a liquid to a gas

    • 2 process: boiling and evaporation

  • Evaporation – Liquid to a gas at temp below boiling point

    • Molecules at the surface moving fast enough to escape the liquid

      • The greater the surface area, the faster the water evaporates

      • Vapor Pressure – pressure caused by the collisions of this vapor and the walls of the container – occurs in a closed container

        • Increases as the temp increases


Chapter 3 states of matter

  • Boiling

    • Vapor pressure and temp increases

    • When vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure, water boils

    • Water molecules move faster when heated, bubbles (boiling) are water vapor

      • Water vapor is less dense so bubbles rise

      • Bubbles burst and releases water vapor into the air

    • Boiling point depends on the atmospheric pressure

      • At high elevations, the atmospheric pressure is lower so boiling point is lower… so food takes longer to cook at this lower temp!


Chapter 3 states of matter

  • Condensation

    • Phase change in which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid

    • Exothermic process

    • Morning dew

    • Foggy glass after a shower


Sublimation and deposition 3 3

Sublimation and Deposition 3.3

  • Sublimation – substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor

    • Endothermic change

    • Ex: dry ice (form of carbon dioxide)

  • Deposition – gas or vapor changes directly into a solid

    • Exothermic change

    • Ex: frost to form on windows


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