Overview of cardiovascular physiology
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Overview of Cardiovascular Physiology. right atrium. left ventricle. Katzung. systemic circulation. Flow = gradient resistance. gradient = flow x resistance. MAP = CO x TPR.

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Overview of Cardiovascular Physiology

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Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Overview of Cardiovascular Physiology

right atrium

left ventricle

Katzung

systemic circulation


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Flow = gradient

resistance

gradient = flow x resistance

MAP = CO x TPR

mean arterial pressure = cardiac output x total peripheral resistance

100 mm Hg

5L/min


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Blood Pressures in Systemic Circulation

Fig. 21.8

Tortora and Derrickson

P = Q x R


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

The Relationship of Resistance to Flow

R  1/r4

Fig. 18 - 10

Guyton

Medical Physiology


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Cardiac Function

Fig. 13-1 Katzung

Fig. 29-5 Ganong


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Fig. 6-7 Katzung

Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Reflex Arc

for the Baroreceptor Reflex

Fig. 21.13

Tortora and Derrickson


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

The Conduction System of the Heart

Fig. 28-1 Ganong


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Fig. 6-7 Katzung

1 (and 2)

M

1

1

1

Location of Autonomic Receptors


Renin rennin

renin / rennin

[diner  dinner]

rēnin  rĕnnin

renal hormone  enzyme used in

making cheese and rennet custards

http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Fankhauser/Cheese/Rennet/Rennet.html


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Renin-Angiotensin System

Tortora and Derrickson (with a modification)

Fig. 18.16


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Catecholamine/

Sympathomimetic

Structures

Katzung


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Ganong

Fig. 20.6

Epinephrine vs. Norepinephrine


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Agonists and Antagonists

Katzung


Cardiac and smooth muscle function

Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Function

calcium-induced

calcium release

Katzung

Smooth and cardiac muscle require some extracellular calcium for contraction.

smooth muscle = 10 - 90 %

of total calcium needed

cardiac muscle  10%


Angina pectoris

Angina Pectoris

Fig. 6-7 Katzung

Brenner, Pharmacology

Ganong


Hypertension

Hypertension

Fig. 6-7 Katzung

(& )

Brenner, Pharmacology


Blood pressure classification

Blood Pressure Classification

From: The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) Express (2003)


Heart failure

Brenner, Pharmacology

Fig. 6-7 Katzung

Heart Failure

Fig. 29-8 Ganong

cf Fig. 13-3 Katzung

Fig. 13-1 Katzung

heart

failure

 venous return   EDV


Overview of cardiovascular physiology

Afferent arteriole

Efferent arteriole

Nephron: basic functional unit of the kidneys

Katzung


Renal physiology

Renal Physiology

  • Ultrafiltration

    • GFR = 125 mL/min

  • Reabsorption

    • water, ions (Na+, Cl-, HCO3-), small molecules (glucose)

  • Secretion

    • ions (H+, K+), certain organic anions and cations, certain drugs (penicillin)

  • Excretion

     1 mL/min

Fig. 26.7 Tortora and Derrickson


Clearance how many ml of plasma are cleared of a substance in one minute

ClearanceHow many mL of plasma are cleared of a substance in one minute?

  • Cx = rate of urinary excretion /

    plasma concentration

  • GFR = Cinulin Ccreatinine

  • Cx = 125 mL/min

    x is freely filtered and neither reabsorbed nor secreted.

  • Cx < 125 mL/min

    There is net reabsorption of x.

  • Cx > 125 mL/min

    There is net secretion of x.


Renal movie from martini fundamentals of anatomy and physiology

Renal Moviefrom Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology


Proximal convoluted tubule

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

  • Reabsorption of

    • most Na+, Cl- and H2O

    • most HCO3-

    • all glucose

    • all amino acids

  • Diuretic Action

    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

      • block NaHCO3 reabsorption

Katzung


Thick ascending limb of the loop of henle

Thick Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle

  • Reabsorption

    • Na+ and Cl-

  • Diuretic Actions

    • Loop Diuretics

      • block Na+/K+/2Cl- transporter

    • Osmotic Diuretics

      • inhibit Na+ reabsorption

Katzung


Early distal tubule

Early Distal Tubule

  • Reabsorption

    • Na+ and Cl-

  • Diuretic Action

    • Thiazide Diuretics

      • block Na+/Cl- transporter

Katzung


Late distal tubule and collecting duct

Late Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct

  • Aldosterone effects

    • Reabsorption

      • Na+

    • Secretion

      • K+

  • Diuretic Action

    • K+ sparing diuretics

      • inhibit the effects of aldosterone

Katzung

Fig. 15-6


Collecting duct adh antidiuretic hormone vasopressin

Collecting Duct - ADHantidiuretic hormone/vasopressin

  • ADH

    • Reabsorption

      • H2O

  • Diuretic Action

    • Drinking H2O inhibits ADH secretion.

      • via decreased plasma osmolarity

Katzung

Fig. 15-6


Conjugation

Conjugation

  • The liver tags some substances for secretion into the bile by conjugating them with another molecule (e.g. glycine).

  • After the bile is released into the intestine, many of these substances are reabsorbed into the blood.

  • Conjugated substances are then filtered into the renal tubules and excreted in the urine.


Ion trapping

Ion Trapping

  • Ionized substances are less likely to diffuse across cell membranes than uncharged substances.

    BH+B + H+

    HA H+ + A-

    lower pH (more acidic)higher pH (more alkaline)

  • Changing the pH of the urine will change which substances are ionized.

    • Urine is normally somewhat acidic (pH  6).

    • Urine can be alkalinized by giving acetazolamide.


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