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Overview of Cardiovascular Physiology. right atrium. left ventricle. Katzung. systemic circulation. Flow = gradient resistance. gradient = flow x resistance. MAP = CO x TPR.

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Overview of cardiovascular physiology
Overview of Cardiovascular Physiology

right atrium

left ventricle

Katzung

systemic circulation


Flow = gradient

resistance

gradient = flow x resistance

MAP = CO x TPR

mean arterial pressure = cardiac output x total peripheral resistance

100 mm Hg

5L/min


Blood Pressures in Systemic Circulation

Fig. 21.8

Tortora and Derrickson

P = Q x R


The Relationship of Resistance to Flow

R  1/r4

Fig. 18 - 10

Guyton

Medical Physiology


Cardiac Function

Fig. 13-1 Katzung

Fig. 29-5 Ganong


Fig. 6-7 Katzung

Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Reflex Arc

for the Baroreceptor Reflex

Fig. 21.13

Tortora and Derrickson



Fig. 6-7 Katzung

1 (and 2)

M

1

1

1

Location of Autonomic Receptors


Renin rennin
renin / rennin

[diner  dinner]

rēnin  rĕnnin

renal hormone  enzyme used in

making cheese and rennet custards

http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Fankhauser/Cheese/Rennet/Rennet.html


Renin-Angiotensin System

Tortora and Derrickson (with a modification)

Fig. 18.16


Catecholamine/

Sympathomimetic

Structures

Katzung


Ganong

Fig. 20.6

Epinephrine vs. Norepinephrine



Cardiac and smooth muscle function
Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Function

calcium-induced

calcium release

Katzung

Smooth and cardiac muscle require some extracellular calcium for contraction.

smooth muscle = 10 - 90 %

of total calcium needed

cardiac muscle  10%


Angina pectoris
Angina Pectoris

Fig. 6-7 Katzung

Brenner, Pharmacology

Ganong


Hypertension
Hypertension

Fig. 6-7 Katzung

(& )

Brenner, Pharmacology


Blood pressure classification
Blood Pressure Classification

From: The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) Express (2003)


Heart failure

Brenner, Pharmacology

Fig. 6-7 Katzung

Heart Failure

Fig. 29-8 Ganong

cf Fig. 13-3 Katzung

Fig. 13-1 Katzung

heart

failure

 venous return   EDV


Afferent arteriole

Efferent arteriole

Nephron: basic functional unit of the kidneys

Katzung


Renal physiology
Renal Physiology

  • Ultrafiltration

    • GFR = 125 mL/min

  • Reabsorption

    • water, ions (Na+, Cl-, HCO3-), small molecules (glucose)

  • Secretion

    • ions (H+, K+), certain organic anions and cations, certain drugs (penicillin)

  • Excretion

     1 mL/min

Fig. 26.7 Tortora and Derrickson


Clearance how many ml of plasma are cleared of a substance in one minute
ClearanceHow many mL of plasma are cleared of a substance in one minute?

  • Cx = rate of urinary excretion /

    plasma concentration

  • GFR = Cinulin Ccreatinine

  • Cx = 125 mL/min

    x is freely filtered and neither reabsorbed nor secreted.

  • Cx < 125 mL/min

    There is net reabsorption of x.

  • Cx > 125 mL/min

    There is net secretion of x.


Renal movie from martini fundamentals of anatomy and physiology
Renal Moviefrom Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology


Proximal convoluted tubule
Proximal Convoluted Tubule

  • Reabsorption of

    • most Na+, Cl- and H2O

    • most HCO3-

    • all glucose

    • all amino acids

  • Diuretic Action

    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

      • block NaHCO3 reabsorption

Katzung


Thick ascending limb of the loop of henle
Thick Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle

  • Reabsorption

    • Na+ and Cl-

  • Diuretic Actions

    • Loop Diuretics

      • block Na+/K+/2Cl- transporter

    • Osmotic Diuretics

      • inhibit Na+ reabsorption

Katzung


Early distal tubule
Early Distal Tubule

  • Reabsorption

    • Na+ and Cl-

  • Diuretic Action

    • Thiazide Diuretics

      • block Na+/Cl- transporter

Katzung


Late distal tubule and collecting duct
Late Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct

  • Aldosterone effects

    • Reabsorption

      • Na+

    • Secretion

      • K+

  • Diuretic Action

    • K+ sparing diuretics

      • inhibit the effects of aldosterone

Katzung

Fig. 15-6


Collecting duct adh antidiuretic hormone vasopressin
Collecting Duct - ADHantidiuretic hormone/vasopressin

  • ADH

    • Reabsorption

      • H2O

  • Diuretic Action

    • Drinking H2O inhibits ADH secretion.

      • via decreased plasma osmolarity

Katzung

Fig. 15-6


Conjugation
Conjugation

  • The liver tags some substances for secretion into the bile by conjugating them with another molecule (e.g. glycine).

  • After the bile is released into the intestine, many of these substances are reabsorbed into the blood.

  • Conjugated substances are then filtered into the renal tubules and excreted in the urine.


Ion trapping
Ion Trapping

  • Ionized substances are less likely to diffuse across cell membranes than uncharged substances.

    BH+ B + H+

    HA  H+ + A-

    lower pH (more acidic) higher pH (more alkaline)

  • Changing the pH of the urine will change which substances are ionized.

    • Urine is normally somewhat acidic (pH  6).

    • Urine can be alkalinized by giving acetazolamide.


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