Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know
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Literacy, Numeracy and Opportunity in the Knowledge Economy: What we know. T. Scott Murray Welfare to work: The next generation Community services council of Newfoundland and Labrador St. John’s, Newfoundland November 16-17, 2003 Telephone: (613) 951-9035 e-mail address: [email protected]

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Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Literacy, Numeracy and Opportunity in the Knowledge Economy: What we know

T. Scott Murray

Welfare to work: The next generation

Community services council of Newfoundland and Labrador

St. John’s, Newfoundland

November 16-17, 2003

Telephone: (613) 951-9035

e-mail address: [email protected]

http://www.ets.org/all/


Governance structures

Governance structures

  • International consortium:

    • Statistics Canada

    • National Center for Education Statistics

    • The Education Testing Service

    • OECD

    • UNESCO-OREALC

    • UNESCO-UIS

  • Board of Participating Countries

  • Technical Advisory Group

  • Functional Expert Groups

    • prose & document

    • numeracy

    • problem solving

    • tacit knowledge

    • teamwork

    • background questionnaire


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Participation in IALS and ALL


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Why we care about skills and learning:Sources of policy interest

  • Skills are important to several pressing policy issues;

    • concerns about skill barriers to economic growth, productivity growth and rates of technological innovation

    • concerns about the role of skill in creating social inequity in economic outcomes

    • concerns about the quality of educational output

  • Key policy drivers:

    • demographics

    • globalization of markets

    • multinationals

    • diffusion of information and communication technologies

    • competition from the developing world


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Definitions of human and social capital

Human capital: the knowledge skills, competences and other attributes enbodied in individuals that are relevant to economic activity (OECD)

Social capital: networks, norms and trust that allow social agents and institutions to be more effective in achieving common objectives. (Coleman)


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Theoretical Framework:A “Markets” model of skill

Skill Demand

Markets for skill

Skill Supply = skill stock + net skill flow

  • Economic

  • Social

  • Educational

+ quality of early

childhood experience

+ quantity of primary

and secondary education

+ quantity and quality of tertiary

+ quantity and quality of

adult learning (formal, non-formal, informal)

+/- immigration

+/- emmigration

- skill loss associated with insufficient demand+/- social demand for skill+/- economic demand forskill

Outcomes

  • Economic

  • Social

  • Educational

  • Health


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Outcomes associated with skill

Economic

Social

Health

Educational


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

What Are Essential Skills

  • “Essential skills” are a set of skills that are used in virtually all occupations.

  • Essential skills are also used throughout the activities of daily life: from shopping to food preparation, from recreational activities to community involvement.

  • Essential Skills are enabling skills that:

    • Help people perform the tasks required by their occupation and other activities of daily life

    • Provide people with a foundation to learn other skills

    • Enhance people’s ability to adapt to workplace and consumer change.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Which Skills Are Essential?Three Approaches:

  • Implicit theories: The view from the demand side

  • Explicit theories: The view from inside the head

  • Theory be damned: The empirical approach


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

The Essential Skills identified

ESRP are:

  • Reading Text

  • Document Use

  • Writing

  • Numeracy (Math)

  • Oral Communication

  • Thinking Skills, including:

    • Problem Solving

    • Decision Making

    • Job Task Planning and Organizing

    • Significant Use of Memory

    • finding Information

  • Working with Others

  • Computer Use

  • Continuous Learning


Skills triangle from the premier s council

Not Portable

Firm & Job

Specific Skills

Workplace Skills

Analytic

Problem

Solving

Workplace

Inter-

Personal

Portable

Generic

Technical

Basic Skills

Portable

Reading

and Writing

Ability

to Learn

Mathematics

Motor Skills

Communications

Skills Triangle from the Premier’s Council


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Skills description

  • Prose Literacy:the knowledge and skills needed to understand and use information from text including editorials, news stories, poems and fiction;

  • Document Literacy: the knowledge and skills required to locate and use information contained in various format, including job applications, payroll forms, transportation schedules, maps, tables and graphics;

  • Numeracy:the knowledge and skills required to understand, use, interpret and communicate mathematical information contained in different life situations.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Skills description

  • Problem solving: the knowledge and skills required in elaborating projects, identifying relevant information in order to plan and analyze (e.g. finding an apartment, organizing an event, etc);

  • Information, Communication and Technology Literacy (ICTL): measures of different technologies, computers and internet use in the work setting and in general, training and computer skills development, and attitude toward new technologies.

  • Tacit knowledge, ICT, team work, speaking and listening.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Reading demand and employment growth by aggregated occupational groups

A.Distribution of reading demand at work at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles on a standardized factor scale by aggregated occupational groups, employed population aged 25 to 65, Canada, 1993-1998

B.Average employment growth by aggregated occupational groups, employed population aged 25 to 65, Canada, 1993-1998

Average employment growth in percent

Occupational groups are ranked by the median of reading demand at work

Source: International Adult Literacy Survey


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS: The stock of skill


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS:


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS Macro-Level outcomes:

GDP PER CAPITA AND LITERACY

A. Relationship between GDP per capita and per cent at prose literacy Levels 1 and 2, population aged 16-65, 1994-1998


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS Macro-Level outcomes:

GDP PER CAPITA AND LITERACY

A. Relationship between GDP per capita and per cent at prose literacy Level 4/5, population aged 16-65, 1994-1998

1. In current prices, equivalent US dollars converted using Purchasing Power Parities.

Source: International Adult Literacy Survey, 1994-1998; OECD database; and economic data for Chile and Slovenia from UNDP, Human Development Report 1999.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS Macro-Level outcomes:

Probability of Experiencing Unemployment


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS Macro-Level outcomes:

Earnings and literacy proficiency, controlling for education and labour force experience

Countries are ranked by the magnitude of the effect parameter associated with educational attainment.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Odds Ratio

1.46

Age of respondent (years)

1.81

Respondent is female

1.81

At least one parent completed university

0.09

Prose Literacy Score at Levels 1 or 2

0.45

Prose literacy Score at Level 3

2.20

Prose literacy Score at Level 5

Respondent’s quantitative literacy score is high

1.45

relative to his or her prose literacy score

IALS Macro-Level outcomes:

Effects on PSE attendance associated with youth’s age, sex, parental education, and literacy scores: International Adult Literacy Study, 1994

Source: J. D. Willms, UNB


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS Macro-Level outcomes:

Likelihood of receiving employer support for training

Odds of participating in employer-sponsored adult education and training, by document literacy levels and by extent of literacy engagement at work, population aged 25-65, 1994-1998

Countries are ranked by the odds of the 4th quartile. The statistical difference to the United States is computed for the 4th quartile.Note: Statistical difference is significant at p < .05.Source: International Adult Literacy Survey, 1994-1998. Adult Education Participation in North America: International Perspectives.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS Macro-Level outcomes:

Likelihood of receiving employer support for training

Odds of participating in employer-sponsored adult education and training, by document literacy levels and by extent of literacy engagement at work, population aged 25-65, 1994-1998

Countries are ranked by the odds of the 4th quartile. The statistical difference to the United States is computed for the 4th quartile.Note: Statistical difference is significant at p < .05.Source: International Adult Literacy Survey, 1994-1998. Adult Education Participation in North America: International Perspectives.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

IALS Macro-Level outcomes:

Figure 9

Participation in adult education and training

Rate of participation in adult education and training, population aged 25-65, 1994-1998

Countries are ranked by the rate of participation.

Note:Statistical difference is significant at p < .05.

Source:International Adult Literacy Survey, 1994-1998.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Resilient

Positive Development

Long term Vulnerable

Vulnerability Is Not a Permanent State for Most Children

1994

1996

56.2%

Not Vulnerable

14.9%

71.1%

71.9%

15.7%

Vulnerable

28.1%

28.9%

13.2%

Newly Vulnerable


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Children with persistent low learning scores have characteristics associated with disadvantage

Source : NLSCY, 1994-1995, 1996-1997, 1998-1999


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Provincial Differences in Mathematics Scores

Source: Vulnerable Children, J. D. Willms, UNB


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Average reading score

375

425

475

525

575

Alberta

Finland

British Columbia

Quebec

Canada

Ontario

Manitoba

95% Confidence interval

Saskatchewan

New Zealand

Australia

Ireland

Korea

United Kingdom

Japan

Nova Scotia

Average score

Prince Edward Island

Newfoundland

Sweden

Austria

Belgium

Iceland

Norway

France

United States

New Brunswick

Denmark

Switzerland

Spain

Czech Republic

Italy

Germany

Liechtenstein

Hungary

Poland

Greece

Portugal

Russian Federation

Latvia

Luxembourg

Mexico

Brazil

Canada rates near the top of the world in READING literacy

Source:Programme for International Student Assessment, 2000.


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

School Profile for Quebec

The profile for Quebec shows that the high average level of reading performance achieved by Quebec students is not attributable to students in a few elite schools. Instead, Quebec’s success rests with it outstanding performance among schools serving students of average SES. There are a few schools of very low SES, and these tend to have relatively low school performance.

Source: J. D. Willms, UNB


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

School Profile for Ontario

The analysis of socioeconomic gradients (Figure 3) indicated that Ontario students scored well below their counterparts in Quebec and Alberta, across the full range of SES. The school profile above shows that the SES intake of most schools in Ontario is above the OECD mean. However, the majority of Ontario’s schools scored below the regression line, indicating that they were not performing as well as other Canadian schools with comparable student intake. Thus, Ontario’s relatively low overall performance is not attributable to a few low SES schools with low performance. Rather, it is associated with a more general pattern of slightly lower than expected performance among the majority of its schools.

Source: J. D. Willms, UNB


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

School Profile for Alberta

The relatively high performance of Alberta students is partially owing to its relatively high level of SES. The results in Tables 1 and 2 indicated that its mean score after adjusting for SES was about 535, similar to the Canadian average. This is reflected in its school profile as well. Most of the schools in Alberta serve a relatively advantaged population. Among these schools there are many that are performing well above norms, but there are others that have relatively low performance, given their SES intake.

Source: J. D. Willms, UNB


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Percentage of 15-yr olds from various jurisdictions attaining B.C. grade 10 reading standards, 2000

1. All results shown here are for 15-year-olds except for B.C. grade 10 students who are, on average, 6 months older than B.C. 15 year olds.

Jurisdictions ordered by the percentage of students meeting or exceeding expectations.

Source: Table 6


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

360

Postsecondary graduates

340

All adults

320

Non-postsecondary graduates

300

280

Prose Literacy

260

240

220

200

180

18

28

38

48

58

68

78

Age (years)

Prose Literacy by Age: Canada


Literacy numeracy and opportunity in the knowledge economy what we know

Products

  • International comparative results December, 2004

  • National report with provincial results June, 2005

  • Thematic monographs on official language – minorities, immigrants, aboriginals, impact on individual and macro-economic performance model-based

  • Literacy and numeracy estimates for small geographic areas (i.e. CSD’s and FEDS)

  • Web-based tools for individual placement and diagnosis of learning needs


The all level 1 study

The ALL Level 1 study

  • Battery of clinical assessments administered to sub-sample of Level 1, Level 2 respondents:

    • PPVT (receptive vocabulary)

    • TOWRE (word recognition)

    • RAN (alphabetic awareness)

    • PhonePass (speaking and listening)

    • Digit Span (short term memory)

  • Designed to define clusters of problems and associated demographic profiles

  • US data reveal interesting patterns of deficit

  • Need $1,200,000 in 2004/05


The wes skill study

The WES-Skill Study

  • Sample of firms selected to reflect different technologies of production, capital intensity and exposure to completion

  • Document and numeracy test administered to sub-sample of workers in Workplace and Employees Survey

  • Will reveal how firm characteristics interact with worker characteristics and skill to yield wage premia

  • $3,800,000 required in 2004/05 or 2005/06


The ials locator test

The IALS Locator Test

  • Computer – administered and scored

  • Places individuals at Level 1, 2 or 3+ on each of IALS scales

  • Ideal for program triage

  • $10/use


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