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Small Off-Road Engines and Large Spark-Ignition Engines with Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop. April 21, 2008. Outline. Background: small off-road engines (SORE) Proposed changes for SORE

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Small Off-Road Engines and Large Spark-Ignition Engines with Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

April 21, 2008


Outline
Outline Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • Background: small off-road engines (SORE)

  • Proposed changes for SORE

  • Background: large spark-ignition engines with displacement less than or equal to one liter (LSI ≤ 1 L)

  • Proposed changes for LSI ≤ 1 L

  • Contact Information


Background sore credits
Background: SORE Credits Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • Production emission credits established in 1998 to provide flexibility during transitional period of emission standard changes

  • U.S. EPA considered use of production emission credits at the time, but ultimately did not adopt


Background sore credits1
Background: SORE Credits Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

Comments From First Workshop and Subsequent Meetings

  • Retain Production Credits

  • Do not discount credit value

  • Do not limit credit life

  • Do not tie credit life to warranty period


Proposed changes sore credits
Proposed Changes: Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter WorkshopSORE Credits

  • Elimination of Production Credits

    • Accrual of Production Credits cease in year 2009

    • Existing Production Credits may be used until year 2012 at full value

  • Retention of Certification Credits

    • Limit lifetime to 5 years at full value


Proposed changes sore credit option
Proposed Changes: Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter WorkshopSORE Credit Option

  • Obtain Certification Credits for advanced electric equipment

    • Battery retains enough charge

      • To power equipment at commercial equipment level

      • For the time equivalent to an average full tank of fuel

      • For 300/500/1000 hours depending on “engine displacement”


Proposed changes sore emission durability period
Proposed Changes: SORE Emission Durability Period Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • Limit durability period to five years or current number of hours, whichever comes first

  • Unchanged from previous proposal


Background lsi 1 l
Background: LSI Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop≤ 1 L

  • May 2006, Board approved more stringent emission standards for LSI > 1 L

  • LSI ≤ 1 L not addressed at that time

  • November 2007 workshop, staff proposed alignment with U.S. EPA

  • Further review showed additional reductions needed

  • The LSI ≤ 1 L equipment is approaching 50% of total projected sales


Engine displacement trends
Engine Displacement Trends Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • More than 70% of 2008 certified LSI ≤ 1 L engine families have engines > 950 cc

  • The number of engine families offered with displacements between 1.0 L and 1.6 L has declined to zero

  • The relatively larger displacement and power ratings indicate a migration from the more stringent category to the less stringent category


Hc no x standards
HC+NO Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshopx Standards


Proposed changes lsi 1 l exhaust emission standards
Proposed Changes: LSI Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop≤ 1 LExhaust Emission Standards


Proposed hc nox standards
Proposed HC+NOx Standards Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

LSI ≤ 1 L

LSI > 1 L


Proposed hc nox standards1
Proposed HC+NOx Standards Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • 6.5 g/kW-hr (5 g/bhp-hr) HC+NOx standard was originally proposed in the 1998 LSI rulemaking, based on the SwRI test results with a reasonable compliance margin

  • There are nine 2008 MY certified engine families meeting the 2010 standards (6.5 g/kW-hr of HC+NOx) and two engine families meeting the 2014 standards ( 0.8 g/kW-hr of HC+NOx)


Industry comments
Industry Comments Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

Proposal would require:

  • Water-cooled engines

  • Three-way catalysts (TWC)


Water cooled engines
Water-Cooled Engines Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • More than 70% of 2007 certified engine families are water-cooled multicylinder engines

  • 10 out of 12 certified manufacturers (2007 MY) have at least one water-cooled family

  • Water-cooled engines can be made to be more fuel efficient, to emit less greenhouse gases (CO2), and to be cleaner burning


Three way catalysts
Three-Way Catalysts Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • 18% engine families currently certified with a catalyst

  • 5 out of 12 certified manufacturers (2007 MY) have at least one TWC family

  • TWC are a proven emissions control technology


Proposed changes lsi 1 l evaporative emission standards
Proposed Changes: LSI Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop≤ 1 LEvaporative Emission Standards

  • Required to meet LSI > 1 Levaporative emission standards, starting in 2010

  • This may require the use of low permeation hoses and fuel tanks

  • Manufacturers may choose performance-based or design-based standards


Proposed changes lsi 1 l test procedures
Proposed Changes: LSI Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop≤ 1 LTest Procedures

  • Required to meet LSI > 1L test procedures, starting in 2010

  • Test cycles: Steady-state, transient, and field testing

  • Constant speed LSI engines need run steady-state test cycle only


Estimated benefit of the proposal statewide annual average
Estimated Benefit of the Proposal Statewide Annual Average Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop


Additional information requested
Additional Information Requested Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • Staff is still gathering cost estimates and encourages submission of specific relevant data

  • Cost differential between air-cooled and water-cooled engines

  • Cost of catalyst system to meet proposed standards


Contact information
Contact Information Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

  • Board Hearing will be held on September 25-26, 2008

  • Please send comments to

    SORE: Yun Hui Park

    [email protected] (626)450-6263

    LSI: Hung-Li Chang

    [email protected] (626)575-6683


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