Small Off-Road Engines and Large Spark-Ignition Engines with Displacement Less Than or Equal to One ...
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April 21, 2008 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Small Off-Road Engines and Large Spark-Ignition Engines with Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop. April 21, 2008. Outline. Background:small off-road engines (SORE) Proposed changes for SORE

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April 21, 2008

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April 21 2008

Small Off-Road Engines and Large Spark-Ignition Engines with Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

April 21, 2008



  • Background:small off-road engines (SORE)

  • Proposed changes for SORE

  • Background:large spark-ignition engines with displacement less than or equal to one liter (LSI ≤ 1 L)

  • Proposed changes for LSI ≤ 1 L

  • Contact Information

Background sore credits

Background: SORE Credits

  • Production emission credits established in 1998 to provide flexibility during transitional period of emission standard changes

  • U.S. EPA considered use of production emission credits at the time, but ultimately did not adopt

Background sore credits1

Background: SORE Credits

Comments From First Workshop and Subsequent Meetings

  • Retain Production Credits

  • Do not discount credit value

  • Do not limit credit life

  • Do not tie credit life to warranty period

Proposed changes sore credits

Proposed Changes: SORE Credits

  • Elimination of Production Credits

    • Accrual of Production Credits cease in year 2009

    • Existing Production Credits may be used until year 2012 at full value

  • Retention of Certification Credits

    • Limit lifetime to 5 years at full value

Proposed changes sore credit option

Proposed Changes: SORE Credit Option

  • Obtain Certification Credits for advanced electric equipment

    • Battery retains enough charge

      • To power equipment at commercial equipment level

      • For the time equivalent to an average full tank of fuel

      • For 300/500/1000 hours depending on “engine displacement”

Proposed changes sore emission durability period

Proposed Changes: SORE Emission Durability Period

  • Limit durability period to five years or current number of hours, whichever comes first

  • Unchanged from previous proposal

Background lsi 1 l

Background: LSI ≤ 1 L

  • May 2006, Board approved more stringent emission standards for LSI > 1 L

  • LSI ≤ 1 L not addressed at that time

  • November 2007 workshop, staff proposed alignment with U.S. EPA

  • Further review showed additional reductions needed

  • The LSI ≤ 1 L equipment is approaching 50% of total projected sales

Engine displacement trends

Engine Displacement Trends

  • More than 70% of 2008 certified LSI ≤ 1 L engine families have engines > 950 cc

  • The number of engine families offered with displacements between 1.0 L and 1.6 L has declined to zero

  • The relatively larger displacement and power ratings indicate a migration from the more stringent category to the less stringent category

Hc no x standards

HC+NOx Standards

Proposed changes lsi 1 l exhaust emission standards

Proposed Changes: LSI ≤ 1 LExhaust Emission Standards

Proposed hc nox standards

Proposed HC+NOx Standards

LSI ≤ 1 L

LSI > 1 L

Proposed hc nox standards1

Proposed HC+NOx Standards

  • 6.5 g/kW-hr (5 g/bhp-hr) HC+NOx standard was originally proposed in the 1998 LSI rulemaking, based on the SwRI test results with a reasonable compliance margin

  • There are nine 2008 MY certified engine families meeting the 2010 standards (6.5 g/kW-hr of HC+NOx) and two engine families meeting the 2014 standards ( 0.8 g/kW-hr of HC+NOx)

Industry comments

Industry Comments

Proposal would require:

  • Water-cooled engines

  • Three-way catalysts (TWC)

Water cooled engines

Water-Cooled Engines

  • More than 70% of 2007 certified engine families are water-cooled multicylinder engines

  • 10 out of 12 certified manufacturers (2007 MY) have at least one water-cooled family

  • Water-cooled engines can be made to be more fuel efficient, to emit less greenhouse gases (CO2), and to be cleaner burning

Three way catalysts

Three-Way Catalysts

  • 18% engine families currently certified with a catalyst

  • 5 out of 12 certified manufacturers (2007 MY) have at least one TWC family

  • TWC are a proven emissions control technology

Proposed changes lsi 1 l evaporative emission standards

Proposed Changes: LSI ≤ 1 LEvaporative Emission Standards

  • Required to meet LSI > 1 Levaporative emission standards, starting in 2010

  • This may require the use of low permeation hoses and fuel tanks

  • Manufacturers may choose performance-based or design-based standards

Proposed changes lsi 1 l test procedures

Proposed Changes: LSI ≤ 1 LTest Procedures

  • Required to meet LSI > 1L test procedures, starting in 2010

  • Test cycles: Steady-state, transient, and field testing

  • Constant speed LSI engines need run steady-state test cycle only

Estimated benefit of the proposal statewide annual average

Estimated Benefit of the Proposal Statewide Annual Average

Additional information requested

Additional Information Requested

  • Staff is still gathering cost estimates and encourages submission of specific relevant data

  • Cost differential between air-cooled and water-cooled engines

  • Cost of catalyst system to meet proposed standards

Contact information

Contact Information

  • Board Hearing will be held on September 25-26, 2008

  • Please send comments to

    SORE: Yun Hui Park (626)450-6263

    LSI: Hung-Li Chang (626)575-6683

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