Phonemic awareness
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Phonemic Awareness. by Chuck Branch. Phonemic Awareness Instruction. Phonemic Awareness Instruction. Phonemic awareness instruction should be child appropriate (IRA, 2002). Songs, chants, word-sound games Word play, nursery or Dr. Seuss rhymes Story book exposure.

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Phonemic awareness

Phonemic Awareness

by Chuck Branch


Phonemic awareness

Phonemic

Awareness

Instruction


Phonemic awareness instruction

Phonemic Awareness Instruction

  • Phonemic awareness instruction should be child appropriate (IRA, 2002).

    • Songs, chants, word-sound games

    • Word play, nursery or Dr. Seuss rhymes

    • Story book exposure


Phonemic awareness instruction1

Phonemic Awareness Instruction

  • Phonemic awareness instruction should be deliberate and purposeful (IRA, 2002).

    • Phonemic awareness instruction should be intentional.

    • Playful language activities are most effective when they are intentional.


Phonemic awareness instruction2

Phonemic Awareness Instruction

  • Phonemic awareness is only one part of a broad literacy program (IRA, 2002).

    • Phonemic awareness necessitates a context of reading and writing.


General guidelines

General Guidelines

The following slides share general guidelines for planning and designing activities for phonemic awareness instruction.


General guidelines1

General Guidelines

  • Unit of Sound Activities

    • Rhymes to teach sound structure

    • Syllable units of sounds within words

    • Onset and rime

    • Phonemes


General guidelines2

General Guidelines

  • Task or Operations Activities

    • Match

    • Isolate

    • Blend

    • Segment


General guidelines3

General Guidelines

  • Use of Cues

    • Games

    • Activities

    • Poetry

    • Stories

    • Songs

    • Clapping the number of syllables

    • Using blocks to represent sounds

    • Jumping while repeating sounds


Phonemic awareness

Rhyme Activities


Rhyme activities

Rhyme Activities

  • Read The Hungry Thing book by Jan Slepian and Ann Seidler.

    • This book uses nonsense rhyming words to describe food the Hungry Thing wants.

    • The teacher pulls real or plastic food items from a lunch bag, calling the items by rhyming nonsense names, and students guess the real names.

    • The teacher gives picture cards to children, and the children create rhyming nonsense names.


Rhyme activities1

Rhyme Activities

  • Related books include the following:

    • The Hungry Thing Returns

    • The Hungry Thing Goes to a Restaurant


Rhyme activities2

Rhyme Activities

  • Read Ten Cats Have Hats by Jean Marzollo.

    • The teacher reads aloud this counting book of rhymes, and has students predict words using the sound clues.

      • Picture illustrations should be saved until after the respective predictions.


Rhyme activities3

Rhyme Activities

  • The teacher has students sing “The Ants Go Marching In” as they march around the classroom.

  • As the song continues to two by two and subsequent numbers, students should add an appropriate rhyme.


Phonemic awareness

Rhyme Activities

“The Ants Go Marching”

The ants go marching one by one,

Hurrah! Hurrah!

The ants go marching one by one,

Hurrah! Hurrah!

The ants go marching one by one,

The little one stops to have some fun,

And they all go down to the ground,

To get out of the sun.

Boom! Boom! Boom!


Phonemic awareness

Rhyme Activities

“The Ants Go Marching”

The ants go marching two by two,

Hurrah! Hurrah!

The ants go marching two by two,

Hurrah! Hurrah!

The ants go marching two by two,

The little one stops to _____________,

And they all go down to the ground,

To get out of the sun.

Boom! Boom! Boom!


Rhyme activities4

Rhyme Activities

The teacher has students sing

“Down by the Bay”.

  • After students have learned the verses, the teacher has students create their own lyrics.

  • Examples:

    • Original song:

      • Did you ever see a whale with a polka dot tail?

    • Students:

      • Did you ever see a shark strolling in the park?


Rhyme activities5

Rhyme Activities

  • The teacher has students sing “The Corner Grocery Store”.

  • After students have learned the verses, the teacher has students create their own lyrics.

  • Examples:

    • Original song:

      • There were peas, peas walking on their knees at the store, at the store.

    • Students:

      • There was steak, steak, going shake shake at the store, at the store.


Phonemic awareness

Syllable Manipulation Activities


Syllable manipulation activities

Syllable Manipulation Activities

The teacher has students sing

“Clap, Clap, Clap Your Hands”.

  • This song is helpful for segmenting and blending.

  • As student become comfortable with the song, three and four syllable words may be added.


Syllable manipulation activities1

Syllable Manipulation Activities

“Clap, Clap, Clap Your Hands”

Clap, clap, clap your hands,

Clap your hands together.

Clap, clap, clap your hands,

Clap your hands together.

Snap, Snap, Snap your fingers,

Snap your fingers together.

Snap, Snap, Snap your fingers,

Snap your fingers together.


Syllable manipulation activities2

Syllable Manipulation Activities

“Clap, Clap, Clap Your Hands”.

Say, say, say these parts.

Say these parts together.

Say, say, say these parts,

Say these parts together:

Teacher: moun (pause) tain (children respond, “mountain!”)

Teacher: love (pause) ly (children respond, “lovely!”)

Teacher: un (pause) der (children respond, “under!”)

Teacher: tea (pause) cher (children respond, “teacher!”)


Syllable manipulation activities3

Syllable Manipulation Activities

The teacher reads Tikki Tikki Tembo

by Arlene Mosel.

  • This story is about two Chinese brothers, one of whom has an extremely long name.

  • The students clap twenty-one times for the syllables in his name.

  • The teacher has students clap the number of syllables in their respective names.

  • The teacher has students glue the appropriate number of colored pieces representative of the number of syllables in their names.

  • The teacher has students say the number of syllables as each name is stated slowly.


  • Syllable manipulation activities4

    Syllable Manipulation Activities

    • The teacher reads Tingo Tango Mango Tree by Marcia Vaughan.

      • This story includes unique names for an iguana, flamingo, parrot, turtle, and bat.

        • Iguana: Sombala Bombala Rombala Roh

        • Flamingo: Kokio Lokio Mokio Koh

        • Parrot: Dillaby Dallaby Doh

        • Turtle: Nanaba Panaba Tanaba Goh

        • Bat: Bitteo Biteo

    • The teacher has students clap the number of syllables in the various names.


    Syllable manipulation activities5

    Syllable Manipulation Activities

    • The teacher shares the nursery rhyme “Humpty Dumpty” to teach syllable blending.

    • The teacher uses five separate cubes that can be snapped together. Just like Humpty Dumpty, the broken words are put back together.

    • Students use one cube for each syllable of the broken words.

    • Students say and repeat the parts of the words, and they snap the cubes together.


    Phonemic awareness

    Onset - Rime Manipulation Activities


    Onset rime manipulation activities

    Onset - Rime Manipulation Activities

    The teacher reads We’re Going on a Bear Hunt by Michael Rosen.

    • The focus is to go on a word hunt.

    • The children sit on the floor with their feet together and their knees bent up.

    • The children slap their toes, then their knees to the beat of the chant.

    • Teachers should use single-syllable words.

      • Examples: light, six, man, van, no, zoo, fist


    Onset rime manipulation activities1

    Onset - Rime Manipulation Activities

    We’re Going on a Bear Hunt

    by Michael Rosen

    • The teacher should use words beginning with continuant sounds that may be drawn out as hands slide from toes to knees for the final part of the chant.

    • Continuant sounds include the following:

      • /f/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /s/, /v/, /w/, /y/, /z/, /th/, /sh/.


    Onset rime manipulation activities2

    Onset - Rime Manipulation Activities

    We’re Going On A Word Hunt

    Teacher: Going on a word hunt!

    (slap toes) (slap knees) (slap toes) (slap knees)

    Students repeat

    Teacher: What’s this word?----------

    (slap toes) (slap knees) (slap toes) (slap knees)

    Students repeat

    Teacher: /m/ (pause) /ap/ pause

    (slap toes) (slap knees)

    Students repeat

    Together: mmmmmmmmmmmap map!

    (slide hands from toes to knee) (slap knees)


    Onset rime manipulation activities3

    Onset - Rime Manipulation Activities

    Make a Word (letters)

    • The teacher prepares written cards that focus on rime units such as at.

    • The teacher prepares a bag or a box with letter cards to serve as onsets for the rimes.

    • As students draw out the onset letter cards, the class responds by saying the sound of the letter drawn, then blending it with at.

    • Students give a thumbs up if a real word has been made or a thumbs down if it is not a real word.


    Phonemic awareness

    Phonemic Manipulation Activities


    Phonemic manipulation activities

    Phonemic Manipulation Activities

    • The teacher reads Cock-a-doodle-moo! by Bernard Most.

    • Cock-a-doodle-moo! uses phoneme addition and phoneme subtraction as various animals make new sounds.

    • Students suggest replacement letters for “cock-a-doodle moo” to create a new wake-up cry.

    • Using plastic farm animals at a center, students retell the story.

    • The teacher encourages the students to play with the sounds as they direct the plastic animals.


    Phonemic manipulation activities1

    Phonemic Manipulation Activities

    Find Your Partner

    • The teacher distributes a set of familiar picture cards, giving one card to each child.

    • Each card can be matched with another card that begins or ends with the same sound or has the same sound in the medial position.

    • Students search for classmates who share the same sound in the targeted position.

    • Examples:

      • dog / flag

      • hat / nat


    Phonemic manipulation activities2

    Phonemic Manipulation Activities

    Scavenger Hunt

    • The teacher organizes students in teams of three.

    • The teacher prepares a bag or a box with letters and pictures of objects beginning with those letters.

      • Example: M with a picture of a monkey

      • Example: S with a picture of a snake

    • Students search throughout the classroom for objects beginning with the target sound.

    • Example: P

      • Pencil, pen, paper


    References

    References

    International Reading Association. (2002). Evidence-based reading instruction: Putting the National Reading Panel report into practice. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.


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