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Phillipi Horticultural Area (PHA). Human impact o n the environment Gr 11 2013. Conditions of use of this overview of the PHA ppt presentation, articles and worksheets.

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Phillipi horticultural area pha

PhillipiHorticultural Area (PHA)

Human impact on the environment

Gr 11 2013

Conditions of use of this overview of the pha ppt presentation articles and worksheets

Conditions of use of this overview of the PHA ppt presentation, articles and worksheets.

  • This presentation is intended to introduce you, the educator, to the complexities of the PHA and to equip you to potentially use this local case study to give students a hands-on overview of this section of the syllabus, as it is topical, controversial and relevant.

  • It is a compilation of slides extracted from talks given by NazeerSonday (spokesperson for the farmers and other organisations aiming to preserve the PHA) and a professional City of Cape Town planner and conservationist to a school’s learners, as well as some comments and discussions held amongst learners at the school after the presentations. The material presented is NOT to be used as such for other presentations please, as it is not original.

  • Newspaper articles clipped from the Cape Times have been scanned and possible aspects which can be investigated accompany this overview. The worksheets and accompanying suggestions for approaching this topic are original and may be used for educational purposes at your school.

  • Please consult the City of Cape Town’s website for further elucidation of aspects and policies mentioned in the presentation.

Location of the pha western cape

Location of the PHA: Western Cape

Phillipi horticultural area pha

Source: Strategic Information, Strategic Development Information and GIS Department, updated - 2008/09/29

How the pha has shrunk over time

How the PHA has shrunk over time.

Land ownership in pha

Land ownership in PHA

  • Almost entirely privately owned land

  • Non-horticultural land either wetland, dune, or biodiversity.

  • Also illegal & non-conforming uses

Agriculture areas farmed in last 15 years

Agriculture areas farmed in last 15 years

Farmed and non farmed areas in the northern pha

Farmed and non-farmed areas in the Northern PHA

Highlands Estate

Ottery Road

  • Summer:January 2007

Ottery Shopping Centre

Olieboom Road

Strandfontein Road

Boundary Road

Varkensvlei Road

How water and farming challenges differ from season to season black areas are water bodies

How water and farming challenges differ from season to season(black areas are water bodies).

Farmed and non farmed areas in the northern pha1

Farmed and non-farmed areas in the Northern PHA

Highlands Estate

Ottery Road

  • Spring:September 2007

Ottery Shopping Centre

Olieboom Road

Strandfontein Road

Boundary Road

Varkensvlei Road

Cape flats aquifer


Cape Flats Aquifer

Water security role cape flats aquifer

Water Security Role: Cape Flats aquifer

Cape Flats Aquifer: Extent, Depth, Capacity & Quality

  • Yield: ±18 million m³/annum.

  • Aquifer transmissivity greatest in south-east of PHA

  • Aquifer requires testing as a potable source

  • Aquifer impacted negatively by horticulture but toxin levels ‘acceptable’.

  • UNEPA study in 2006 concluded Cape Flats Aquifer can possibly supply TWO THIRDS of Cape Town’s drinking water supply.

  • PHA farmers tap into aquifer for all year production.

Phillipi horticultural area pha

Present & Future: Predicted demand &

identified supply-side interventions

High Water Requirement Curve

4. Cape Flats Aquifer

Actual Water Requirement Curve

Low Water Requirement Curve with WC/WDM

Surface water in the pha

Surface water in the PHA

  • Generally low-lying area, due mainly to sand-mining (agreement) down to 1m above water table.

  • Numerous large perennial wetlands & many seasonal wetlands

Role of the pha currently in the city metropolitan area

Role of the PHA currently in the City Metropolitan area

  • Food security.

  • Water security.

  • Economic:

    - Employment (farm labourers, packaging, sorting, selling).

    - Cut flowers.

  • Mining:

    • Building sand supply.

    • High quality silica deposits (for glass manufacturing).

Food insecurity in africa

Food insecurity in Africa

Source: AFSUN_ African Urban Food Security Network_ Battersby

Food security in the western cape

Food security in the Western Cape

  • Western Cape is a water scarce region:

    (hot dry summers & semi-desert hinterland)

  • Mediterranean climate not conducive to domestic vegetable gardening.

  • Western Cape identified as a climate change ‘at risk’ area.

  • Food security is about both production and access

  • 80% of population in CT’s poor households estimated to have food insecurity .

Pha s food security role

PHA’s Food Security Role

  • Philippi Horticultural Area has access to free water from the Cape Flats Aquifer.

  • Very close to markets (most importantly for poor households)

  • Produces over 50 different crops & 50% of City’s fresh vegetables.

  • Produces 100 000 tonnes /year at value R150m /year ‘at farm gate’

  • Productivity at R90 000/ha- for viticulture it is R18 000/ha

  • Can produce 2,5x (5x in South –West ) crops p.a. due to cool sea breezes

  • Close to two WWTW & potentially more water sources

  • Contributes to nutritional needs of 2 to 3 000 employees (2.5kg / day)

  • Transport cost break-point: Refrigeration required beyond 120km

  • Unique productive green lung.

  • Agricultural land redistribution potential.

  • Massive opportunity for production & employment increases (c.300%)

  • Agri-processing and research opportunities: (UWC’s Elsenburg?)



  • Building sand:

  • Deposits in Cape Town area will last for 20 years

  • PHA the principal supplier, but remaining deposits limited to south-east area

  • Mining permitted down to not lower than general surface level of surrounding area

  • Glass sand:

  • Silica sand underlies entire PHA , but only accessible near surface in centre

  • No comparable deposits anywhere in SA

  • Major deposit -15m deep & 315mill tons

  • Land surface rights:

  • Subject to Mineral & Petroleum Resources Development Act

Stakeholders in the pha

Stakeholders in the PHA

  • City of Cape Town (Mayor Patricia de Lille) and urban developers: 2 sites being contested-Rapicorp and MSP for rezoning.

  • Phillipi Farmers and civic associations: spokesperson NazeerSonday.

  • Communities in the Western Cape who are supplied with fresh produce from the PHA.

Urban edge

Urban edge

  • Urban edge – ineffective monitoring causing problems.

  • Illegal establishment of businesses in the urban edge over time.

  • Rezoning of land in the urban edge is being considered from agricultural to mixed zoning, due to the changes that have been allowed by authorities through lack of monitoring in the urban edge.

Issues being contested by stakeholders

Issues being contested by stakeholders

  • Proposed moving of the urban edge (making the PHA smaller)- rezoning from horticulture to mixed.

  • The best farming land is in thesouth of the PHA. This land is currently owned by developers and so it is not being farmed. Farmers want this land.

  • Farmers in the north experience difficulties with farming (dry, limited water access, poor soil quality). They are keen to sell their land to developers and buy farming land in the south of the PHA.

Political vs professional decision making for areas like the pha

Political vs. professionaldecision- making for areas like the PHA.

  • Professional town planners and conservationists have a 100 year plan in place for the PHA and other areas in the City Metropolitan area.

  • Each time a political party wins an election (potentially every few years) , there is pressure on the party to deliver on promises made in elections or to meet demands by communities in order to ensure continued support of the party.

  • Lack of funding can prevent timeous provision of infrastructure and serviced sites to communities by municipalities (which are run by political parties).

  • By allowing developers to build housing developments with the intrinsic infrastructure needed, some of the pressure on local municipalities to provide serviced sites and infrastructure is alleviated, so developers have leverage over politicians who benefit from the good press associated with infrastructure delivery.

1 the city s response and way forward

1. The City’s response and way forward.

Phillipi horticultural area pha

  • Increasing PHA Challenges identified by the City of Cape Town.

  • Speculation (MSP and Rapicorp sites)

  • Potential irrigation viability problems

  • Illegal development

  • Crime

  • Traffic congestion

  • Mixed press

  • Illegal dumping of solid waste

Lansdowne RoadIndustrial Area

Springfield Road










Jim se Bos



MSP Site

Phillipi horticultural area pha

Policy Responses from the City of Cape Town.

  • Cape Town Spatial Development Framework

  • Cape Flats District Plan

Latest developments moving ahead

Latest Developments & Moving Ahead

Policy Responses from the City of Cape Town

  • Schaapkraal Urban Edge & Development Guidelines Policy: draft

Latest developments moving ahead1

Latest Developments & Moving Ahead

City of Cape Town Policy Responses

  • Weltevreden Wedge Urban Edge & Development Guidelines Policy: draft

Alternative land uses in the pha

Alternative land uses in the PHA

Potential urban infill &

intensification areas

Alternative land uses in the pha1

Alternative land uses in the PHA

Potential urban infill &

intensification areas

2 the civic and farming associations viewpoints and solutions

2. The Civic and farming associations viewpoints and solutions:

The civic and farming organisations vision plan for the pha

The Civic and farming organisations vision plan for the PHA.

The pha vision plan

The PHA Vision Plan

  • Creating a

  • win-win

  • solution through developing a bold community-driven spatial design plan!

The pha vision plan1

The PHA Vision Plan

Developing a shared vision for the future

  • Local stakeholders:

  • Schaapkraal Civic and Environmental Association

  • Developing farmers Association

  • Highlands Estate ratepayer Association

  • PHA Sector Crime Forum

  • Commercial farmers

  • Philippi Horticulture Housing Committee

  • Farmworkers ………..AND

The pha vision plan2

The PHA Vision Plan

Supporters and fan club

  • Soil for Life

  • Abhalimi Bezekaya

  • Makassa Food Growers

  • LOGRA Civic

  • Coalition for Environmental Justice

  • The Khayelitsha Development Forum

  • The Mitchell’s Plain Education Forum

  • The Ottery Ratepayers Association

  • Centre for African Studies

  • African Food Security Urban Network

  • CoCT PEPCO study, 2009

  • Philippi East Development Initiative

  • False Bay Ecology Park


  • And growing….

Read it and get with it

Read it and get with it…

  • The reports and studies…………………………its unanimous!

  • PHA Task Team Study, 2009 _________ save the PHA!

  • PHA AFSUN Report, 2012 ___________ save the PHA!

  • PHA Synthesis Report, 2013 __________ save the PHA!

Doing the democracy thing

Doing the democracy thing…

  • Strong and proactive community based organisations ____check!

  • Input on IDP’s _________ check!

  • On-going ward councillors engagements __________check!

  • Input in CoCT Spatial development framework, 2011 _____________________check!

Schaapkraal Civic and Environmental Association- SCEA- meeting

Doing the democracy thing1

Doing the democracy thing…

  • One day Subcouncil workshop on PHA issues, 18 February 2012 __ ______________________ check!

  • Subcouncil activity day, September 2012 _________________ check!

Councillors and council officials on a walk-about in the PHA

Doing the democracy thing2

Doing the democracy thing…

  • Meeting MEC Anton Bredell, September 2012 _____________ ____________check!

  • Escalation of PHA illegal dumping issues

  • Escalation of development planning issues

  • Prof Battersby presenting AFSUN PHA Report.

Doing the democracy thing3

Doing the democracy thing…

  • Presenting PHA Vision Plan

  • Escalating PHA illegal dumping issues.

  • Raising Housing issues for informal settlement community.

  • Meeting the Executive Mayor Patricia De Lille _8 November 2012 ___ _____________ check!

B ut the threat remains

But the threat remains…

Rapicorp122 472ha Landgrab

  • 16 October 2008 Rapicorp (marked in blue) makes an application to the city for the amendment of the Urban Structure Plan to allow a housing development.

  • 12 May 2009 CoCT commission on “to plan for and manage the PHA into the future” recommends that the area be retained for farming.

  • 26 November 2009 a full Council Meeting resolves not to amend the Urban Structure Plan as requested by Rapicorp and confirmed the “current and potential significant value of the PHA to the city’s food and water security” and for land reform.

But the threat remains

But the threat remains…

  • 4. In May 2011 the Cape Town Special Development Framework (SDF) was approved by Council in terms of the Municipal Systems Act, within which the ‘Rapicorp’ land was retained as part of the PHA.

  • 5. March 2011 the MEC Anton Bredell approves the Cape Town SDF in terms of the Land Use Planning Ordinance (LUPO) but he unilaterally redraws the urban edge to exclude the future food growing capacity of the PHA- the ‘Rapicorp’ land.

  • 16 July 2013 MAYCO announces it will support 300ha for urban development on farmlands where veggies are growing for MSP developers (marked in red).

Phillipi horticultural area pha

How you can help….

  • Please join our campaign

  • Talk to your councillor, talk to Zille and President Zuma

  • Write a letter to the newspaper.

  • Talk to your local retail chain store manager.

  • Sign Save the PHA petition

  • Contact us on:

  • Email:

  • Facebook: food & Farming for the Cape Flats


How can you become an activist for change

How can you become an activist for change?

  • Talk to your school chommies, teachers, parents

  • Start a school petition.

  • Sign and share the save the PHA AVAAZ online petition.

  • Like our Facebook page;

  • Food & Farming for the Cape Flats

  • Write to:

  • Mayor Patricia de Lille


  • Premier Helen Zille


  • Dear editor;



Now you know the facts about the pha you decide

Now you know the facts about the PHA, you decide!

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