ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent
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IPv6 The Big Move: Transition and Coexistent. Frenil V. Dand. Introduction. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is the successor to IPv4

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  • IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is the successor to IPv4
  • IPv4 is base on 32bits, with that its possible to express 4,294,967,296 different values. Over half a billion of those are unusable. Giving us 3.7 billion possible addresses
  • 5% of IPv4 are reaming
  • IPv4 will run out by end 2011
  • IPv6 supports about 340 undecillion (1036) addresses



IPv6 adoption has been slowed and IPv4 exhaustion has bee prolonged by NAT (Network Address Translation)


advantages of ipv6
Advantages of IPv6
  • Trillions of times more addresses.
  • Easy to configure (Neighbor discovery and Stateless autoconfig)
  • Compatible with 3G and features that support greater mobility
  • Supports ad hoc networking
  • More efficient usage of broadband, via Jumbograms and Flow Label
  • Leaner Headers (six removed and one new filed).
  • More secure with mandatory IPSec
  • Better Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Allowing for many new possibilities
how does ipv6 work
How does IPv6 work?
  • New 128-bit addressing represented by eight 16 bit hex components divided by colons, X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X
  • Last 64 bits are used for interface ID
  • e.g. 2001:0DB8:C003:0001:0000:0000:0000:F00D
  • Can be represented in shorter format by removing leading zeros e.g. 2001:DB8:C003:1:0:0:0:F00D
  • Further reduction by removing consecutive fields of zeros using the double-colon :: option
  • Double-colon can be used only once, because multiple occurrences would lead to ambiguity
  • e.g. 2001:DB8:C003:1::F00D
Addresses are organized in a hierarchical manner to facilitate:

- Scaling

- Aggregation

- Routing

  • Aggregation is achieved by address prefix and the organization of addresses into two levels- public topology and interface identifier
  • Smaller routing tables allows for increase routing efficiency
IPv6 supports three address types:

- Unicast Addresses: one-to-one (global, link local, unique local, compatible)

- Multicast Addresses: one-to-many (also replaces broadcast addresses)

- Anycast Addressed: one-to-nearest (allocated from Unicast)

IPv6 Global Unicast Address
  • Unicast will be used for majority of the traffic
  • One-eighth of address is assigned to it
  • 2001:0DB8:C003:0001:0000:0000:0000:F00D
ipv6 multicast and anycast
IPv6 Multicast and Anycast
  • Multicasting allows for single device to send data to group of recipient
  • Format Prefix of 1111 1111
  • Always begins with FF
  • Scope ID
  • (16 different values from 0 to 15)
  • Currently defined values (in decimal)
  • 0 = Reserved
  • 1 = Node-Local Scope
  • 2 = Link-Local Scope
  • 5 = Site-Local Scope
  • 8 = Organization-Local Scope
  • 14 = Global Scope
  • 15 = Reserved
  • Four bits are reserved for Flags.
  • Currently, first 3 of them are set to zero (unused)
  • Last bit is Transient.
  • Transient can be zero or one:
  • If T set to Zero, then multicast address is well-known permanently assigned
  • If T set to One, then multicast address is not permanently assigned

Send this to closest member of this group

  • Anycast addresses are new to IPv6
  • Cross between unicast and multicast
  • Allows datagrams to be sent to whichever router in a group of equivalent router is closest
autoconfiguration and renumbering
Autoconfiguration and Renumbering
  • By default IPv6 host can configure a link-local address for each interface
  • Router discovery allows host to determine addresses of routers, additional addresses, and other configuration parameters
  • Address autoconfiguration can only be performed on multicast-capable interfaces
  • 6 steps device takes for stateless autoconfiguration
Link-Local Address Generation- device generates a link-local address
  • Link-Local Address Uniqueness Test- node tests to ensure the address in not duplicated
  • Link-Local Address Assignment- device assigns the link-local address to its IP interface
  • Router Contact- node next attempts to contact local router for more information on continuing the configuration
  • Router Direction- router provides direction to the node on how to proceed
  • Global Address Configuration- host will configure itself with its globally unique Internet address
ipv6 transition and coexistence
IPv6 Transition and Coexistence
  • Very long and difficult process
  • IPv4 and IPv6 incompatible
  • Various technologies
  • Three categories :
    • Dual Stack
    • Tunneling
    • Translation
Dual Stack is a network stack that supports both IPv4 and IPv6 while sharing most of the code
  • To work effectively must be implemented on all routers in network
  • Works by using two addressing schemes in parallel
  • Requires more resources
Tunneling is technique which consists of encapsulating
  • Allows IPv6 packets over IPv4 networks
  • Require dual-stack at end of tunnel
  • Three main tunneling techiques:
    • IPv6 over IPv4 (6over4)
    • IPv6 to IPv4 (6to4) automatic tunneling
    • Tunnel Broker
  • Three step of tunneling are:
    • Encapsulation
    • Descapsulation
    • Tunnel management


    • Embeds IPv4 in IPv6
    • Not auto; needs network admin for end point
  • 6to4 automatic tunneling
    • Tunnel endpoint doesn’t require administrator
    • IPv4 embedded in the last 32 bits
    • IPv6 packets send over IPv4 network
  • IPv6 Tunnel Broker
    • 3rd party service or a vendor

Teredo is extension of basic 6to4

    • Provides IPv6 connectivity behind NAT
    • Uses 3rd party relay service
    • Vista and Windows 7 running Teredo
    • Easy for average Internet users
  • Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) similar to 6over4
    • Automatic encapsulation by using virtual IPv6
    • Used in enterprise network

IPv4/IPv6 Translation

    • Once considered as a last resort
    • Not simple as it sounds
    • Based on Stateless IP/ICMP and Network address translation
    • Only option of IPv6 transition that entirely remove IPv4 addresses.
    • Single-stack approach
  • 6rd
    • IPv6 Rapid Deployment
    • Big move help in residential consumer
    • Allows ISP to designate relay
    • Requires home hardware to support 6rd
    • Encapsulation of IPv6 inside IPv4 and send to ISP
  • Not a overnight process
  • Interoperability key
  • IPv6 is going to internet and world of communications to the next level
  • Japan, China and other countries in Asia-Pacific are already deploying and using IPv6
  • 2008 Beijing Olympics was the widest use of IPv6
  • Refrigerators can order groceries and taxis can detect rain and message to headquarters
  • And let’s not forget iPad, iPhone, and Android’s
  • DOD and Federal Government already running IPv6
The End