Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent
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IPv6 The Big Move: Transition and Coexistent. Frenil V. Dand. Introduction. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is the successor to IPv4

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IPv6 The Big Move: Transition and Coexistent

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Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

IPv6 The Big Move: Transition and Coexistent

Frenil V. Dand


Introduction

Introduction

  • IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is the successor to IPv4

  • IPv4 is base on 32bits, with that its possible to express 4,294,967,296 different values. Over half a billion of those are unusable. Giving us 3.7 billion possible addresses

  • 5% of IPv4 are reaming

  • IPv4 will run out by end 2011

  • IPv6 supports about 340 undecillion (1036) addresses

    340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,786,211,456


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • IPv6 adoption has been slowed and IPv4 exhaustion has bee prolonged by NAT (Network Address Translation)

http://www.ipv6forum.com/


Advantages of ipv6

Advantages of IPv6

  • Trillions of times more addresses.

  • Easy to configure (Neighbor discovery and Stateless autoconfig)

  • Compatible with 3G and features that support greater mobility

  • Supports ad hoc networking

  • More efficient usage of broadband, via Jumbograms and Flow Label

  • Leaner Headers (six removed and one new filed).

  • More secure with mandatory IPSec

  • Better Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Allowing for many new possibilities


Ipv6 headers

IPv6 Headers


How does ipv6 work

How does IPv6 work?

  • New 128-bit addressing represented by eight 16 bit hex components divided by colons, X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X

  • Last 64 bits are used for interface ID

  • e.g. 2001:0DB8:C003:0001:0000:0000:0000:F00D

  • Can be represented in shorter format by removing leading zeros e.g. 2001:DB8:C003:1:0:0:0:F00D

  • Further reduction by removing consecutive fields of zeros using the double-colon :: option

  • Double-colon can be used only once, because multiple occurrences would lead to ambiguity

  • e.g. 2001:DB8:C003:1::F00D


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • Addresses are organized in a hierarchical manner to facilitate:

    - Scaling

    - Aggregation

    - Routing

  • Aggregation is achieved by address prefix and the organization of addresses into two levels- public topology and interface identifier

  • Smaller routing tables allows for increase routing efficiency


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • IPv6 supports three address types:

    - Unicast Addresses: one-to-one (global, link local, unique local, compatible)

    - Multicast Addresses: one-to-many (also replaces broadcast addresses)

    - Anycast Addressed: one-to-nearest (allocated from Unicast)


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

IPv6 Global Unicast Address

  • Unicast will be used for majority of the traffic

  • One-eighth of address is assigned to it

  • 2001:0DB8:C003:0001:0000:0000:0000:F00D


Ipv6 multicast and anycast

IPv6 Multicast and Anycast

  • Multicasting allows for single device to send data to group of recipient

  • Format Prefix of 1111 1111

  • Always begins with FF

  • Scope ID

  • (16 different values from 0 to 15)

  • Currently defined values (in decimal)

  • 0 = Reserved

  • 1 = Node-Local Scope

  • 2 = Link-Local Scope

  • 5 = Site-Local Scope

  • 8 = Organization-Local Scope

  • 14 = Global Scope

  • 15 = Reserved

  • Four bits are reserved for Flags.

  • Currently, first 3 of them are set to zero (unused)

  • Last bit is Transient.

  • Transient can be zero or one:

  • If T set to Zero, then multicast address is well-known permanently assigned

  • If T set to One, then multicast address is not permanently assigned


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • Send this to closest member of this group

  • Anycast addresses are new to IPv6

  • Cross between unicast and multicast

  • Allows datagrams to be sent to whichever router in a group of equivalent router is closest


Autoconfiguration and renumbering

Autoconfiguration and Renumbering

  • By default IPv6 host can configure a link-local address for each interface

  • Router discovery allows host to determine addresses of routers, additional addresses, and other configuration parameters

  • Address autoconfiguration can only be performed on multicast-capable interfaces

  • 6 steps device takes for stateless autoconfiguration


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • Link-Local Address Generation- device generates a link-local address

  • Link-Local Address Uniqueness Test- node tests to ensure the address in not duplicated

  • Link-Local Address Assignment- device assigns the link-local address to its IP interface

  • Router Contact- node next attempts to contact local router for more information on continuing the configuration

  • Router Direction- router provides direction to the node on how to proceed

  • Global Address Configuration- host will configure itself with its globally unique Internet address


Ipv6 transition and coexistence

IPv6 Transition and Coexistence

  • Very long and difficult process

  • IPv4 and IPv6 incompatible

  • Various technologies

  • Three categories :

    • Dual Stack

    • Tunneling

    • Translation


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • Dual Stack is a network stack that supports both IPv4 and IPv6 while sharing most of the code

  • To work effectively must be implemented on all routers in network

  • Works by using two addressing schemes in parallel

  • Requires more resources


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • Tunneling is technique which consists of encapsulating

  • Allows IPv6 packets over IPv4 networks

  • Require dual-stack at end of tunnel

  • Three main tunneling techiques:

    • IPv6 over IPv4 (6over4)

    • IPv6 to IPv4 (6to4) automatic tunneling

    • Tunnel Broker

  • Three step of tunneling are:

    • Encapsulation

    • Descapsulation

    • Tunnel management


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • 6over4

    • Embeds IPv4 in IPv6

    • Not auto; needs network admin for end point

  • 6to4 automatic tunneling

    • Tunnel endpoint doesn’t require administrator

    • IPv4 embedded in the last 32 bits

    • IPv6 packets send over IPv4 network

  • IPv6 Tunnel Broker

    • 3rd party service or a vendor


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • Teredo is extension of basic 6to4

    • Provides IPv6 connectivity behind NAT

    • Uses 3rd party relay service

    • Vista and Windows 7 running Teredo

    • Easy for average Internet users

  • Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) similar to 6over4

    • Automatic encapsulation by using virtual IPv6

    • Used in enterprise network


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

  • IPv4/IPv6 Translation

    • Once considered as a last resort

    • Not simple as it sounds

    • Based on Stateless IP/ICMP and Network address translation

    • Only option of IPv6 transition that entirely remove IPv4 addresses.

    • Single-stack approach

  • 6rd

    • IPv6 Rapid Deployment

    • Big move help in residential consumer

    • Allows ISP to designate relay

    • Requires home hardware to support 6rd

    • Encapsulation of IPv6 inside IPv4 and send to ISP


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Not a overnight process

  • Interoperability key

  • IPv6 is going to internet and world of communications to the next level

  • Japan, China and other countries in Asia-Pacific are already deploying and using IPv6

  • 2008 Beijing Olympics was the widest use of IPv6

  • Refrigerators can order groceries and taxis can detect rain and message to headquarters

  • And let’s not forget iPad, iPhone, and Android’s

  • DOD and Federal Government already running IPv6


Ipv6 the big move transition and coexistent

The End

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