Nongame and endangered species
Download
1 / 39

Nongame and Endangered Species - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 66 Views
  • Uploaded on

Nongame and Endangered Species. Chapter 19. Definition. Game vs nongame Not biological, but political Nongame = everything except game “Nongame” status doesn’t ensure protection Vermin or varmints taken anytime Nongame status not uniform Can vary geographically

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Nongame and Endangered Species' - nan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Definition
Definition

  • Game vs nongame

    • Not biological, but political

    • Nongame = everything except game

      • “Nongame” status doesn’t ensure protection

        • Vermin or varmints taken anytime

    • Nongame status not uniform

      • Can vary geographically

        • Prairie chickens hunted in KS, protected in IL

        • Mourning doves the same

  • Consumptive vs nonconsumptive use

    • All “use” is consumptive to some degree

  • Emphasis should be on values

  • Not game or nongame, but just wildlife


  • Brief history
    Brief History

    • Historically game species

    • 1960’s environmental awakening

      • First Earth Day 22 April 1970

  • Now all species considered, but still a way to go

    • Ecosystem management

  • Indicator species

    • Stenotypic

  • Key ecosystems


  • Brief history1
    Brief History

    • Pelican Island (1903)

      • Teddy Roosevelt’s executive order

    • Migratory Bird Act (1916)

    • Endangered Species Preservation Act (1966)

    • DDT

      • Birds of prey

      • Robins

    • Rachael Carson

      • Silent Spring (1962)


    Brief history2
    Brief History

    • Endangered Species Preservation Act (1966)

      • National Bison Range (1908)

      • Bald Eagle Protection Act (1940)

    • Authorized Sec. of Interior to determine if species were facing extinction

    • Sponsored research

    • Acquired habitat through Land and Water Conservation Fund (1965)

  • National Environmental Policy Act (1969)


  • ESA

    • Modified in 1969 to include all vertebrates and some invertebrates

    • Led to formation of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

      • Convention of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)


    Cites
    CITES

    • Appendices

      • I endangered

      • II threatened

      • III trade should be regulated for conservation


    Esa 1973
    ESA 1973

    • Extended to cover plants

      • Only insect pests are excluded

    • Recognized species as members of ecosystems

    • Threatened

      • Likely to become endangered

    • Endangered

      • Faced with extinction in all or parts of their distribution

    • Recognized subspecies

      • FL panther

      • Ecologically Significant Units (ESU) salmon in West


    ESA

    • Petition to list by any individual, agency, or group

    • Requires public notification in Federal Register

    • Criteria for listing

      • Habitat destruction

      • Over exploitation

      • Threatened eradication by predators or disease

      • Inadequate regulations for protection


    Esa section 7
    ESA Section 7

    • Consultation Process

      • Requires federal agencies to consult w/ FWS or NMFS if they are proposing an “action” that might affect a listed species of its habitat

      • Action is broadly defined as funding, permits, etc.

    • Jeopardy decision

      • Must ensure action will not jeopardize continued existence of listed species of its habitat

    • Biological Assessment

      • Analyze potential effects of action

      • If adverse effect, then renders a biological opinion with “reasonable and prudent alternatives” to avoid jeopardy


    ESA

    • Bush administration not friendly w/ ESA

      • Rate of listings

        • Clinton -- 65/yr, Bush -- 8/yr

      • Recovery plan completions

        • Less under Bush than Clinton

      • Bush administration proposed new regulations to weaken act

    • Obama administration more environmentally conscious

      • Over turned Bush rule

      • Salazar


    ESA

    • Illegal

      • Trafficking

      • Take

        • Harming, wounding,killing, harassing

    • Recovery Plan

    • Define critical habitat

    • Habitat Conservation Plans (1982)

      • Allows some “incidental take”

      • Can issue incidental take permit


    Snail darter case
    Snail Darter Case

    • Snail darter endangered 1975

      • Little Tennessee River

      • Telico dam under construction

    • 1978 Supreme Court upheld injunction stopping the dam

      • $100mm already been spent

    • Congress amended ESA

      • Creates Exemptions Committee

        • AKA God Squad


    Snail darter case1
    Snail Darter Case

    • God Squad

      • Statutory power to exempt projects from ESA

      • Secretaries of Agriculture, Army (ACE), Interior, Chair Council Econ Advisors, EPA, NOAA, representative from the state where the project is located

    • Determined exemption was not warranted

    • Congress passed a law specifically exempting Tellico from federal regulations

    • God squad returns?


    Ben cone case
    Ben Cone Case

    • Inherited Cone’s Folly

      • Pender County, NC

    • 1991 decided to sell trees

      • Hired biologist who found 12 RCW colonies

      • 1-mile circle around each couldn’t be harvested

      • 22% Cone’s property couldn’t be harvested

        • Still had to pay taxes

    • Changed timber management on remainder

      • Short rotations, large clearcuts

    • Informed neighbors, and they did the same

    • Pre HCP and Safe Harbor

      • Cones HCP

      • Adverse consequences?

      • Fix ESA?


    Safe harbor
    Safe Harbor

    • Provides incentives for private landowners to manage for endangered species

    • Assures them that no additional restrictions will be imposed as a result of conservation practices

    • “No surprises”

    • ESA details


    Safe harbor process
    Safe Harbor Process

    • RCW example

    • Establish baseline population -- 10 colonies

    • Do management that enhances habitat

      • Pop increases by 5, new pop is 15 colonies

      • Timber harvest can destroy up to 5 colonies

      • Must maintain baseline population

    • Safe Harbor by states


    Safe harbor economics
    Safe Harbor Economics

    • Landowner A’s 5 “new” colonies can be “sold”

    • Landowner B wants to develop land with 2 RCW colonies

      • Couldn’t do so because it would violate ESA

    • Landowner B could “buy” 2 colonies from A, then A’s baseline would increase to 12

      • B could develop the land

    • Win-win for both landowners


    Canada
    Canada

    • Species at Risk Act (2003)


    Triage
    Triage

    • Field hospital in war or large emergency

    • Identify 3 groups

      • Likely to die regardless of treatment

      • Likely to survive regardless of treatment

      • Likely survive if given care

    • Thomas Lovejoy advocated applying triage approach to endangered species conservation

    • Caveat

      • “Care” might not be possible

      • Too much land required, genetic variability, “value”


    Economics
    Economics

    • Lots of $$ spent feeding, observing traveling, etc. that’s not related to game species


    Who pays
    Who pays?

    • License fees

    • Excise taxes

      • Pittman-Robertson, Dingle-Johnson

      • 1937, Federal Aide in Wildlife Restoration

      • 11% tax on hunting equipment

        • 50% habitat, 20% acquisition, 25% research

    • Tax check offs

      • Many states now have them for a variety of causes

    • License plates NC

    • Sales taxes - Missouri


    Funding for nongame
    Funding for Nongame

    • Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (1980)

      • Funding never appropriated

    • Teaming With Wildlife Coalition (1990’s)

      • Push to create funding for nongame

    • Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA)

      • Off shore oil leases

      • Didn’t pass Congress (2000-2001)

        • Passed the House

        • Never voted on in Senate

        • Funded one-time $$ 2000 and 2001

      • Failed again in 2002


    Funding for nongame1
    Funding for Nongame

    • Teaming with Wildlife (1990’s)

    • State Wildlife Grants (SWG) (2000)

      • Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Plan

        • NC’s was the first in the country to be approved

      • Fiscal 2009 Bush administration’s request $73.8mm

        • About the same as 2008

    • Fiscal 2010 Obama administration $90 mm


    Vulture restaurants
    Vulture Restaurants

    • Feeding bearded vultures in South Africa (1966)

      • USA CA condor

      • 1970’s cape griffon threatened in S. Africa

        • S. Africa vulture restaurant

        • More

      • India vulture dieoff

      • Diclofenac

      • Tower of silence


    Bearded vulture

    Cape griffon

    Cape griffon vulture


    Vulture restaurants1
    Vulture Restaurants

    • Reasons

      • Contaminants -- Diclofenic

      • More vulture declines

      • Ketoprofen

      • Source of safe and available food

        • Brush encroachment, restore populations

      • CA deficiency

        • Bones crushed by hyenas no longer available because hyenas eliminated

      • Tourism

      • Research

    • Located near feedlots

    • Fenced to keep out dogs, etc.


    Endangered species
    Endangered Species

    • IUCN

    • Red Data Book (1966)


    Endangered species1
    Endangered Species

    • Causes

      • Natural

        • Part of evolutionary process

        • Many more extinct than living now

      • Hunting

        • Passenger pigeon (??), Dodo

      • Exotic species

        • Predators

          • Cats in islands

        • Competitors

          • Goats and pigs in Hawaii, Cervids in NZ. Brown snake Guam

      • Habitat modification


    Predisposing factors
    Predisposing Factors

    • Narrow habitat requirements (stenoky)

      • RCW, Black-footed ferret

    • Economic importance

      • Blue whale, bison, Atlantic salmon

    • Large size and threat to man

      • Grizzly bear, wolf, lions, etc.

    • Low reproductive potential

      • Gorilla, CA condor

    • Highly specialized

      • Manatee, panda


    Whooping crane
    Whooping Crane

    • Nested in northern prairies and wintered along Gulf Coast

    • 23 birds remained in 1941 after establishing Aransas NWR in TX

      • 15 migrated north, 6 stayed, 2 captivity

      • Nesting grounds discovered in 1954

        • Wood Buffalo Nat Park, NW Territories, Canada

      • Resident population in TX gone by 1950

      • Migratory population varied 25-40

    • 73 breeding pairs in 2007


    Whooping crane1
    Whooping Crane

    • Foster parent program began in 1975-1989 when whooping crane eggs were placed in Sandhill crane nests in Idaho

      • None ever nested, so failure

    • Meanwhile TX population grew to 176 in 2001

    • Raised juvenile cranes at Patuxent and International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI

    • Established a population of 50-100 in FL

      • No offspring in FL produced to date


    Whooping crane2
    Whooping Crane

    • Ultralight aircraft used to establish new migratory route between WI and Kissimmee, FL

    • Nested successfully at Necedah NWR, WI

      • 2006 2 chicks hatched

    • 2007 53 eastern population

    • Video


    Kirtland s warbler
    Kirtland’s Warbler

    • Nest in northern of MI

      • Young jack-pines -- fire dependent species

        • 15-20 years old

  • On the ground

  • Migrate to Bahamas

  • Declined to 176 pairs

    • Cowbird nest parasitism

      • Cowbirds spread east as forests were fragmented

  • Controlled cowbirds

    • 4,000/yr since 1972

    • Nest success increased, but population didn’t increase as much as would be expected, why?


  • Kirtland s warbler1
    Kirtland’s Warbler

    • Nesting habitat is dependent upon fire

    • Lake Mack burn (1980)

      • Created a lot of new habitat, and population increased


    Bog turtle
    Bog Turtle

    • Small, rare

    • Disjunct population

      • Northern -- MD, NY

      • Southern -- NC

    • Habitat is small, shallow, spring-fed wetlands

      • Meadow vegetation of sedges, rushes, etc.

      • Soft mud and persistent shallow water

      • Rare plants there too


    Bog turtle1
    Bog Turtle

    • Northern listed as threatened in 1997, but includes southern population too because individuals look the same

      • “Similarity of appearance” clause

    • Habitat loss, pet trade

      • Drained wetlands

    • Must keep in early successional condition

      • Light grazing

      • Manage water flow

        • Beavers pro or con

    • NC bog turtle project

    • NJ bog turtle project


    ad