The chemists tools
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The chemists tools. Elements and the periodic table. Elements. Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 120 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium. Symbols of Elements.

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The chemists tools

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The chemists tools

The chemists tools

Elements and the periodic table


Elements

Elements

  • Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes

  • Are the building blocks of matter

  • 120 elements known today

    Examples: carbon

    gold

    calcium


Symbols of elements

Symbols of Elements

  • Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations

  • Capitalise the first letter only

    Examples:

    C carbon Cocobalt

    N nitrogenCacalcium

    F fluorine Br bromine

    O oxygen Mg magnesium


Symbols from latin names

Symbols from Latin Names

ElementSymbolLatin name

CopperCucuprum

GoldAuaurum

LeadPbplumbum

MercuryHghydrargyrum

PotassiumKkalium

SilverAgargentum

SodiumNanatrium

TinSnstannum


Major elements in the body

% Major Elements in the Body

O65.0 %K 0.34

C18.0S 0.26

H10.0Na 0.14

N 3.0Cl 0.14

Ca 1.4Fe 0.004

P 1.0 Zn 0.003

Mg 0.50

Trace Elements

As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V


Learning check

Learning Check

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

1) C2) Ca3) CA

B. Sulfur

1) S2) Sl3) Su

C. Iron

1) Ir2) FE3) Fe


Solution

Solution

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

2) Ca

B. Sulfur

1) S

C. Iron

3) Fe


Learning check1

Learning Check

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

1) neon2) nitrogen 3) nickel

B. P

1) potassium2) phlogiston3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver2) aegean3) gold


Solution1

Solution

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

2) nitrogen

B. P

3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver


Periodic table

Periodic Table

The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties.


Physical properties

Physical Properties

The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance.

  • Color

  • Size

  • Shape

  • Density

  • Freezing and Boiling Points

  • Odor


Groups of elements

Groups of Elements

  • Vertical columns on the periodic table

  • Similar physical properties

  • Similar chemical properties


Groups on the periodic table

Groups on the Periodic Table

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


Representative groups

Representative Groups

  • Group 1Alkali Metals

  • Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Group 7 Halogens

  • Group 8Noble Gases


Location of some groups

Location of Some Groups

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A

l m

k e

a t

l a

i l

s

A

l

k

a

l

i

n

e

H

a

l

o

g

e

n

s

I G

n a

e s

r e

t s


Periods on the periodic table

Periods on the Periodic Table

  • Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8.

  • Numbered 1, 2, 3, ….

  • Include representative elements and transition elements


Periods on the periodic table1

Periods on the Periodic Table

1

2

3

4

5

6


Learning check2

Learning Check

A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4

1) Br2) Cl3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron


Solution2

Solution

A. Element in Group 7A, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3

2) magnesium


Learning check3

Learning Check

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br2) Cl3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb


Solution3

Solution

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

2) magnesium

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

2) N, P, As


Metals and nonmetals

Metals and Nonmetals

Metals

  • Located to the left of the heavy line

  • Shiny, ductile

  • Good conductors of heat and electricity

    Nonmetals

  • Located to the right of the heavy line

  • Dull and brittle

  • Poor conductors, good insulators


Metals and nonmetals1

Metals and Nonmetals

Transition metals

NONMETALS

METALS

METALS


Learning check4

Learning Check

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulphur____

B. chlorine____

C. sodium____

D. iron____

E. carbon____

F. silver____


Solution4

Solution

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulphur2

B. chlorine2

C. sodium1

D. iron1

E. carbon2

F. silver1


Learning check5

Learning Check

Select the correct elements:

A. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

2) C, Si

3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

B. Non-metals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi

2) N, P, As

3) N, P, As, Sb


Solution5

Solution

A. Metals in Group 4A

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

B. Nonmetals in Group 5A

2) N, P, As


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