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The chemists tools. Elements and the periodic table. Elements. Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 120 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium. Symbols of Elements.

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the chemists tools
The chemists tools

Elements and the periodic table

elements
Elements
  • Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes
  • Are the building blocks of matter
  • 120 elements known today

Examples: carbon

gold

calcium

symbols of elements
Symbols of Elements
  • Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations
  • Capitalise the first letter only

Examples:

C carbon Co cobalt

N nitrogen Ca calcium

F fluorine Br bromine

O oxygen Mg magnesium

symbols from latin names
Symbols from Latin Names

Element Symbol Latin name

Copper Cu cuprum

Gold Au aurum

Lead Pb plumbum

Mercury Hg hydrargyrum

Potassium K kalium

Silver Ag argentum

Sodium Na natrium

Tin Sn stannum

major elements in the body
% Major Elements in the Body

O 65.0 % K 0.34

C 18.0 S 0.26

H 10.0 Na 0.14

N 3.0 Cl 0.14

Ca 1.4 Fe 0.004

P 1.0 Zn 0.003

Mg 0.50

Trace Elements

As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V

learning check
Learning Check

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

1) C 2) Ca 3) CA

B. Sulfur

1) S 2) Sl 3) Su

C. Iron

1) Ir 2) FE 3) Fe

solution
Solution

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

2) Ca

B. Sulfur

1) S

C. Iron

3) Fe

learning check1
Learning Check

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickel

B. P

1) potassium 2) phlogiston 3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver 2) aegean 3) gold

solution1
Solution

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

2) nitrogen

B. P

3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver

periodic table
Periodic Table

The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties.

physical properties
Physical Properties

The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance.

  • Color
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Density
  • Freezing and Boiling Points
  • Odor
groups of elements
Groups of Elements
  • Vertical columns on the periodic table
  • Similar physical properties
  • Similar chemical properties
representative groups
Representative Groups
  • Group 1 Alkali Metals
  • Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Group 7 Halogens
  • Group 8 Noble Gases
location of some groups
Location of Some Groups

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A

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k e

a t

l a

i l

s

A

l

k

a

l

i

n

e

H

a

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o

g

e

n

s

I G

n a

e s

r e

t s

periods on the periodic table
Periods on the Periodic Table
  • Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8.
  • Numbered 1, 2, 3, ….
  • Include representative elements and transition elements
learning check2
Learning Check

A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4

1) Br 2) Cl 3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boron

solution2
Solution

A. Element in Group 7A, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3

2) magnesium

learning check3
Learning Check

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br 2) Cl 3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boron

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb

solution3
Solution

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

2) magnesium

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

2) N, P, As

metals and nonmetals
Metals and Nonmetals

Metals

  • Located to the left of the heavy line
  • Shiny, ductile
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity

Nonmetals

  • Located to the right of the heavy line
  • Dull and brittle
  • Poor conductors, good insulators
metals and nonmetals1
Metals and Nonmetals

Transition metals

NONMETALS

METALS

METALS

learning check4
Learning Check

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulphur ____

B. chlorine ____

C. sodium ____

D. iron ____

E. carbon ____

F. silver ____

solution4
Solution

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulphur 2

B. chlorine 2

C. sodium 1

D. iron 1

E. carbon 2

F. silver 1

learning check5
Learning Check

Select the correct elements:

A. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

2) C, Si

3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

B. Non-metals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi

2) N, P, As

3) N, P, As, Sb

solution5
Solution

A. Metals in Group 4A

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

B. Nonmetals in Group 5A

2) N, P, As

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