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Ocean Energy Alla Weinstein, President. Agenda. Ocean Energy Resources Stage of Technology Development Socio Economic & Environmental Impacts Barriers to Overcome Cooperation Recommendations. Ocean Energy Resources. Ocean Energy Potential. Wave Energy – 45,000 TWh/year

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Ocean Energy Alla Weinstein, President

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Ocean energy alla weinstein president

Ocean Energy

Alla Weinstein, President


Agenda

Agenda

  • Ocean Energy Resources

  • Stage of Technology Development

  • Socio Economic & Environmental Impacts

  • Barriers to Overcome

  • Cooperation

  • Recommendations


Ocean energy resources

Ocean Energy Resources


Ocean energy potential

Ocean Energy Potential

  • Wave Energy – 45,000 TWh/year

  • Ocean Currents – 400 TWh/year

  • Tidal – 1,800 TWh/year

  • Ocean Thermal – 33,000 TWh/year

  • Osmotic – 20,000 TWh/year

Source: Ocean Energy: Prospects & Potential, Isaacs & Schmitt, with 15% utilization factor & 50% capacity factor


Stage of technology development

Stage of Technology Development

  • Ocean Energy state of the art

    • Has matured significantly over the last 5 years

    • Entered Early Commercialization

  • Large scale test installations are either developed or under development


Installed capacity

Installed Capacity

  • Wave ~ 1.7 MW

    • Pico, Azores – 0.4 MW

    • Limpet, Islay – 0.5 MW

    • Pelamis, Portugal – 0.7 MW

  • Tidal ~ 266 MW

    • Barrage – 240MW La Rance; 20MW CA; 5MW China

    • Current – 1MW, MCT, IE; 0.5MW, Verdant, USA

  • OTEC ~ 0.2 MW

    • Hawaii, USA


  • Wave energy generation

    Wave Energy Generation


    Global wave power distribution

    Global Wave Power Distribution

    Annual average wave energy flux per unit width of wave crest (kilowatts/m)


    Wave energy conversion principles

    Wave Energy Conversion Principles


    Onshore wave grid connected owc

    Onshore Wave – Grid Connected OWC

    PICO Plant, Portugal

    1999, 400kW

    LIMPET, Wavegen, UK

    2000, 500kW


    Offshore wave owc

    Offshore Wave - OWC

    OceanLynx, Australia

    2005, 450 kW

    OE Buoy, Ireland

    2006, 20 KW


    Offshore wave subsurface

    Offshore Wave - Subsurface

    AWS, Portugal

    2005, 2MW

    Wave Roller, Finland

    2006, 13 kW


    Offshore wave surface

    Offshore Wave - Surface

    Pelamis, UK

    2005, 750kW

    WaveDragon, Denmark

    2003, 20kW


    Offshore wave point absorbers

    Offshore Wave – Point Absorbers

    AquaBuOY, USA

    2007, ~ 20kW

    Power Buoy, USA

    2005, 40kW

    Wavebob, Ireland

    2006, 200kW


    Tidal energy generation

    Tidal Energy Generation

    Tidal changes in sea level occur as Earth rotates beneath bulges in ocean envelope, which are produced by solar and lunar gravitational forces.

    North PoleEarth rotates counter-clockwise

    MOON’S ORBIT


    Tidal resources

    1. Siberia2. Inchon, Korea3. Hangchow, China4. Hall's Point, Australia5. New Zealand6. Anchorage, Alaska7. Panama8. Chile9. Punta Loyola, Argentina10. Brazil

    11. Bay of Fundy12. Frobisher Bay, Canada13. Wales, UK14. Antwerp, Belgium15. LeHavre, France16. Guinea17. Gujarat, India18. Burma19. Semzha River, Russia20. Colorado River, Mexico21. Madagascar

    Tidal Resources


    Tidal range la rance france

    Tidal Range – La Rance, France


    Tidal current devices

    Tidal Current Devices

    Gorlov Helical Turbine, 2005, USA

    Hammerfest Strom, 2006, Norway


    Tidal current devices1

    Tidal Current Devices

    MTC, 2006, UK

    Verdant Power, 2006, USA


    Ocean currents

    Ocean Currents

    Global redistribution of heat by ocean currents. As global warming accelerates evaporative transfer of fresh water to poles, conveyor belt slows.

    Winds move 60 % of “excess heat” from equator to poles (primarily via extratropical and tropical storms), while ocean currents move 40% (thermohaline “conveyor belt”).


    Ocean current devices

    Ocean Current Devices

    Open Hydro, 2007, UK (EMEC)


    Ocean thermal resources

    Ocean Thermal Resources


    Ocean thermal energy

    Ocean Thermal Energy

    Sun-Sea, USA

    OTEC-Mini, 1998, Hawaii, USA


    Osmotic energy

    Osmotic Energy


    Osmotic energy1

    Osmotic Energy

    StatKarft, Norway (randition)


    Socio economic environmental

    Socio Economic & Environmental

    • Socio Economic

      • Coastal job creations ~ 10-20 jobs/MW

      • Utilization of existing infrastructure

      • Emissions aversion

  • Environmental

    • Three environmental assessments – FONSI

    • Main areas of concern – solved via design

      • Withdrawal of energy

      • Spill or leakage from hydraulic-based devices

      • Noise for OWC


  • Non technical barriers

    Non-Technical Barriers

    • Economic Incentives

      • Long-term feed-in tariffs have proven to work

  • Access and availability of the electrical grid

    • A major expansion factor

  • Regulatory Framework

    • Standardization is required

  • Availability of Resource Data

  • Public Awareness


  • Eu cooperation investments

    EU Cooperation & Investments

    • Cooperation should be encouraged and promoted

    • Private investors are looking for:

      • Government support to offset initial risks

      • Feed-in tariffs

      • Long-term power purchase obligations

      • Investor incentives

  • Funding needs to concentrate on demonstration projects


  • Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • Large number of device concepts

      • Future funding programs should concentrate bridging the “valley of death” and the “death peak”

    • Grid availability will be a major hindering factor to growth


    Ocean energy alla weinstein president

    Contact Information: Tel : +32 (0)2 400 10 40

    Fax: +32 (0)2 791 90 00


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