Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders . What is Normal?. Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of discomfort, unhappiness, or emotional distress
FIGURE 12.1 The number of people displaying a personal characteristic may help define what is statistically abnormal.
FIGURE 12.11 A combination of vulnerability and stress may produce psychological problems. The top bar shows low vulnerability and low stress. The result? No problem. The same is true of the next bar down, where low vulnerability is combined with moderate stress. Even high vulnerability (third bar) may not lead to problems if stress levels remain low. However, when high vulnerability combines with moderate or high stress (bottom two bars) the person “crosses the line” and suffers from psychopathology.
FIGURE 10.6 The approximate relationship between the id, ego, and superego, and the levels of awareness.
FIGURE 12.15 Suicidal behavior usually progresses from suicidal thoughts, to threats, to attempts. A person is unlikely to make an attempt without first making threats. Thus, suicide threats should be taken seriously
Figure 12.7 (Shneidman)
FIGURE 12.7 Lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is associated with how closely a person is genetically related to a schizophrenic person. A shared environment also increases the risk.
Figure 12.8 (Shneidman)
FIGURE 12.8 Dopamine normally crosses the synapse between two neurons, activating the second cell. Antipsychotic drugs bind to the same receptor sites as dopamine does, blocking its action. In people suffering from schizophrenia, a reduction in dopamine activity can quiet a person’s agitation and psychotic symptoms.