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MAGIC Results. Alessandro De Angelis INFN, IST and University of Udine ECRS Lisboa, September 2006. EGRET : 273 sources above 100 MeV. > 30 sources above 100 GeV, 3x larger than before HESS and MAGIC came. The Physics Program. m QSRs. AGNs. Pulsars. GRBs. SNRs.

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Magic results

MAGIC Results

Alessandro De Angelis

INFN, IST and University of Udine

ECRS Lisboa, September 2006


De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • EGRET : 273 sources above 100 MeV

  • > 30 sources above 100 GeV,

  • 3x larger than before HESS and MAGIC came


The physics program
The Physics Program

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

mQSRs

AGNs

Pulsars

GRBs

SNRs

Origin of Cosmic Rays

cosmological

g-Ray Horizon

Quantum Gravity effects

Cold Dark Matter


Magic cycle1 feb 2005 apr 2006
MAGIC Cycle1 (Feb 2005-Apr 2006)

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • Statistics of physics runs for Cycle1:

    • 1070 hours dark time out of 1714, plus 150 h “good technical runs”, and 212 hours moon

      • Moon time increasing to an asymptotical value ~1/3

    • ~100 hours ToO (with some important results)

      • will increase with the increased number of collaborations

        • Suzaku, Swift, GLAST, AGILE, …

  • All data analyzed

    • Papers published or submitted for all positive signals, but 5 (Crab, Mkn501, x, y, z)

      • 10 papers published or under publication in 2006

  • 2 GRB observations during the primary burst

  • MAGIC Catalog opened (MAGIC Jxxx-yyy)


Galactic sources i snrs
Galactic Sources I: SNRs

Source is Extended!

Index –2.5 ± 0.2

90 cm VLA (green) + MAGIC (bck) + 12CO (black)

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • “MAGIC observations of VHE g -rays from HESS J1813-178”, ApJ Lett. 637 (2006) 41.

Index –2.1 ± 0.2

  • “Observation of VHE g radiation from HESS J1834-087/W41 with MAGIC”, ApJ Lett. 643 (2006) 53.


Galactic sources ii m qsr
Galactic Sources II: mQSR

0.4 AU

0.7

0.5

0.3

To observer

0.9

0.2

0.1

  • LS I +61 303:

    • High Mass x-ray binary at a distance of 2 kpc

    • Compact object probably a neutron star

    • High eccentricity or the orbit (0.7)

    • Modulation of the emission from radio to x-rays with period 26.5 days attributed to orbital period

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • MAGIC has observed LS I +61 303 for 54 hours from November 2005 to March 2006 (6 orbital cycles)

  • A point-like source (E>200GeV) detected with significance of ~9s

  • consistent with LSI position  identification of g-ray source


De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • The source is quiet at periastron passage and at relatively high emission level (16% Crab Nebula flux) at later phases [0.5-0.7]

  • Hint of periodicity

Science 312, 1771 (2006)


Galactic sources iii the gc
Galactic Sources III: the GC

-7

10

E2 dN/dE

-8

10

15 TeV

WIMP

6 TeV

WIMP

-9

10

0,1

1

10

Energy [TeV]

“Observation of g rays from the GC with MAGIC”, ApJ L 638 (06) 101.

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

Cangaroo spectral index

Γ=-4.6±0.5

HESS spectral index

Γ=-2.63±0.04

MAGIC 2005: Γ=-2.3±0.4

flux: ~10% of Crab

no apparent variability

HESS, astro-ph/0408145


Extragalactic agn
Extragalactic (AGN)

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • 7 AGNs detected

    • Markarian 421, z=0.030

    • Markarian 501, z=0.034

    • 1ES2344+514, z=0.044

    • Markarian 180, z=0.045

    • 1ES1959+650, z=0.047

    • 1ES1218+304, z=0.182

    • PG1553+113, z~0.3

redshift


Mkn 421 z 0 030 mkn 501 z 0 034
Mkn 421 (z=0.030) & Mkn 501 (z=0.034)

Mkn421 TeV-X-ray-correlation

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • Two very well studied sources, highly variable

    • >40k excess photons in MAGIC

    • TeV-X Correlation

Mkn421


Mkn 501 giant flare
Mkn 501 giant flare

  • Flare on 9 July 2005

  • Doubling time~ 5 min.

  • Spectrum shape changes within minutes

    • Implications on the dispersion relation for light, see later

  • IC peak detected?

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006


A nontrivial dispersion relation for light in vacuum(e.g., Quantum Gravity effects?)

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • From a phenomenological point of view, the effect can be studied with a perturbative expansion. In first order, the arrival delay of g-rays emitted simultaneously from a distant source should be proportional to their energy difference and the path L to the source:

  • The expected delay is very small and to make it measurable one needs to observe very high energy g-rays coming from sources at cosmological distances.


High time resolution study of agn flare
High time-resolution study of AGN flare

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • Huge Mkn 501 flare in July 2005: 4 Crab intensity, signal more than doubled wrt baseline

  • Intensity variation recorded in 2 minute bins => new, much stronger, constraints on emission mechanism and light-speed dispersion relations (effective quantum gravity scale).

MAGIC

preliminary


1es2344 514 z 0 044
1ES2344+514 (z=0.044)

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

Clear detection, ~9s

No variability

Mkn 180 (z=0.045)

  • Upper limits from HEGRA, WHIPPLE

  • MAGIC: DISCOVERY!

    • April 2006, 11.1 h -Triggered by optical flare

    • 5.5 , index: -3.3 ± 0.7


1es1959 650 z 0 047
1ES1959+650 (z=0.047)

Spectral index:

2.72 ± 0.143.2 ± 0.2

  • MAGIC: Significant signal in only 6h of observation

  • ApJ 639 (2006) 761

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

1ES1218+304 (z=0.182)

  • Upper limits from HEGRA, WHIPPLE

  • MAGIC: DISCOVERY!

    • Jan 2005, 8.2 h

    • 6.4 , index: -3.0 ± 0.4

    • No signs of variability

ApJ L 642, L119 (2006)


Pg1553 113 z 0 3 0 09
PG1553+113 [z~0.3? (>0.09)]

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • Observed 18.8h in 2005-06

  • H.E.S.S.: 4.0 hint

  • (A&A 448L (2006), 43)

  • MAGIC: ApJL submitted,astro-ph/0606161

  • 8.8, firm detection.

  • If (a) intrinsic slope not harder than 1.5 (b) intrinsic spectrum has just one peak

  • => z < 0.78 (MAGIC only) or z < 0.42 (MAGIC+HESS)


Agn conclusions
AGN: conclusions

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • There are 12blazars above 100 GeV established

  • MAGIC detected 7 of them; 2 of them discovered by MAGIC, 1 co-discovered with HESS

  • Fast, giant flare of Mkn501 recorded with unprecedented time resolution. Physics?

  • Hard constraint on the redshift of PG1553+113 to z<0.42 in case there is one peak above 100 GeV. If z>0.42, first observation of multipeak structure of a blazar above 100 GeV.

  • Variation of spectra with distance. Physics?


Agn at a glance
AGN at a glance

PKS 2155-304

H1426+428

H2356-309

PKS2005-489

1ES1218+304

1ES1101-232

1ES1959+650

Mkn 421

Mkn 501

PKS2005

PG1553

Simulated

measurements

New Sources

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

At least a handle on EBL, but also the possibility of accessing cosmological constants (Martinez et al.) could become reality soon (maybe including X-ray obs.)


GRBs

Only to be seen by all sky

monitor detectors

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

Acc. by MAGIC

During clear nights

GRB Positions in Galactic Coordinates, BATSE

DURATION OF GRBs


Grbs and magic
GRBs and MAGIC

  • MAGIC is the right instrument, due to its fast movement & low threshold

    • MAGIC is in the GCN Network

    • GRB alert active since Apr 2005

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006


GRB observation with MAGIC:

GRB050713a

MAGIC data-taking

GRB-alarm from SWIFT

ApJ Letters 641, L9 (2006)

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

SWIFT

No VHE g emission from GRB positively detected

yet...

(all other observed GRB very

short or at very high z)

MAGIC

We are on the track!


Magic highlights of the first year
MAGIC Highlights of the First Year

Crab Nebula

SZA & LZA

LSI+61 303

Micro-Quasar

New Source

Galactic Center

HESS J1813

HESS J1834

13CO cloud

Mrk421 (0.031)

1ES2344(z=0.044)

Mrk180 (0.045)

New source

1ES1959 (0.047)

1ES1218(z=0.18)

New Source

PG 1553 (Z>0.25)

New source

Mrk501 (z=0.034)

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006


Magic cycle2
MAGIC Cycle2

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • From May 2006 to May 2007

  • 840 dark time hours recommended for observation time in Class A, plus a maximum (?) of 236h for ToO

    • 46% to AGN

    • 28% to Galactic Sources

    • 9% to Pulsars

    • 14% to DM, including M87

      + Special projects (t neutrinos, …)

      GRB: >36h ToO – and going towards a further improvement of the response time


The threshold
The threshold

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • We are publishing with a threshold of 70 GeV

  • We detect significant signal above 40 GeV

  • Understanding our efficiency towards the goal of 40 GeV. A special task force (UHU) has been set up; preliminary physics results at 50 GeV.

    • Substantial improvement on DM studies and determination of cosmological constants

Secret


Conclusions
Conclusions

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • MAGIC is close to the design performance for 1 telescope

    • Threshold of 70 GeV for physics analysis; close to understand down to 50 GeV, and signal from 40 GeV

  • MAGIC is delivering very good physics results

    • In 2006, 7 papers published (one in Science) and 3 submitted, with 4 new sources; 6 papers in the pipeline, with 2-3 additional new sources

  • Cycle 2: important commitment to test more fundamental physics (DM, Lorentz violation, …)

    • And the second telescope will see the first light soon…


Backup
BACKUP

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006


Tev blazars
TeV blazars

Kino et al, ApJ, 2002, 564, 97

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

  • TeV blazars: non-thermal emission, highly variable

  • All but one are HBL (high peaked BL Lacertae)

  • Models: leptonic vs. hadronic origin


Absorption of extragalactic  - rays

Any  that crosses cosmological distances through the universe interacts with the EBL

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

Attenuated flux function of g-energy and redshift z.

For the energy range of IACTs (10 GeV-10 TeV), the interaction takes place with the infrared (0.01 eV-3 eV, 100 m-1 m). Star formation, Radiation of stars, Absorption and reemission by ISM

EBL

By measuring the cutoffs in the spectra of AGNs, any suitable type of detector can help in determining the IR background-> needs good energy resolution

Acc. by new detectors



Constraining the EBL density (and paving the way to a measurement of cosmological parameters)

PKS 2155-304

H1426+428

H2356-309

PKS2005-489

1ES1218+304

1ES1101-232

1ES1959+650

Mkn 421

Mkn 501

Simulated

measurements

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

Blanch & Martinez 2004

Different

EBL models

Simulated

measurements

Mkn 421

Mkn 501

1ES1959+650

PKS2005-489

PKS 2155-304

H1426+428

1ES1218+304

1ES1101-232

H2356-309


Flux time variability
Flux time variability measurement of cosmological parameters)

  • MAGIC has observed LSI during 6 orbital cycles

  • A variable flux (probability of statistical fluctuation 310-5) detected

  • Marginal detections at phases 0.2-0.4

  • Maximum flux detected at phase 0.6-0.7 with a 16% of the Crab Nebula flux

  • Strong orbital modulation  the emission is produced by the interplay of the two objects in the binary

  • No emission at periastron, two maxima in consecutive cycles at similar phases  hint of periodicity!

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

Albert et al. 2006


Energy spectrum
Energy spectrum measurement of cosmological parameters)

  • The absence of a spectral feature between 10 and 100 keV goes against an accretion scenario

  • Contemporaneous multiwavelength observations are needed to understand the nature of the object

De Angelis (MAGIC) 2006

Albert et al. 2006


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