Realistic Grammar. Chapter – 9. Constrained-Based-Lexicalism. Language production : - competence : the speakers knowledge of their language - performance : the way this knowledge is used in speaking and understanding (Chomsky; 1965). Chomsky 1965:. Chomsky 1965:
Chapter – 9
-competence: the speakers knowledge of their language
-performance: the way this knowledge is used in speaking and understanding
`In general, it seems that the study of performance models incorporating generative grammars may be a fruitful study; furthermore, it is difficult to imagine any other basis on which a theory of performance might develop`
the simple structure is directly associated with the string of words that constitute each sentence. If a given sentence is grammatical according to our grammar its meaning is directly derivable from the properties of the words in the string.
The grammar consists of constraints, like the grammar rules and the lexical entries, that interact with each other without rearranging, trimming or modifying each other.
3) Strongly Lexicalist
Most of the grammatical and semantic information is transferred to the lexicon.The key elements of the sentence, namely the words, drive its construction of the semantic & syntactic structure.
Any theory that has these three design properties exemplifies a viewpoint that will be referred to as CBL
The two most striking facts about language processing are:
‚After finding the book on the atom, Sandy went into class, confident that there would be no further obstacles to getting that term paper done.‘
If the decision made was wrong, language processing is disrupted!
The horse that was raced past the barn fell.
The horse taken to the hospital died.
The boat that was floated down the river sank.
The boat seen down the river sank.
Garden Path Sentences
‚The horse that they raced around the track held up fine. The horse that was raced down the road faltered a bit. And the horse raced past the barn fell.‘
‚The evidence that was assembled by the prosecution convinced the jury.‘
The structure keeps the same potential for ambiguity, but by changing the words one can eliminate the garden path effect.
The rapidity of language processing is increased because listeners use what ever information is available, as soon as it becomes available to them, to infer the speakers intention.
In an experiment with a head-mounted-eye-tracker participants were asked to view a grid with several objects on it. Two of these objects would normally be described with words whose initial partitions sound the same, like candle and candy (Competitors). The participants received instructions to pick up an object and to place it somewhere else on the grid (‚take the candle and put it above the fork‘). Eye movement to the object they picked up was significantly faster when no competitor was present.
The retrieval of lexical information begins before the end of the word.
Activity of the variations depends on frequency and plausibility.
Speaker A: „Senora Maria Consuelo Bustamente y Bacigalupo is coming to dinner tomorrow night!“
Speaker B: „WHO did you say is coming to dinner
This information may be enough to interpret the meaning of the whole utterance.
The sheep that was sleeping in the pen stood up.
The sheep in the pen had been sleeping and were about to stand up.
Production activity and comprehension activity are closely related to each other.
It turns out that the psycholinguistic evidence on language processing points in the same direction.
Lou forgot the umbrella...
... was broken!
... in the closet!
Lou hoped the umbrella... / Lou put the umbrella ...
... was broken!*... was broken!
*... in the closet! ... in the closet!
Dana learned a new theorem in class.
The artist drew the child with the bicycle.
Lynn bought the hat on the shelf.
virtually all children become fluent speakers of a language, with little apparent effort or instruction.
His solution how people can come to know so much about language so quickly and easily is that people‘s knowledge of language is for the most part innate, not learned.
1)Language is task-specific: (Chomsky)
People are born with a mental organ for language which is distinct in its organization and functioning from other cognitive abilities.
2)Language is non-task-specific (others)
People‘s capacity to learn language arises essentially as a side-effect of their general intelligence or of other abilities.
It contains many elements like the grammar rules, the definition of Well-Formed Tree Structure, the features and types that are plausible candidates for playing a role in a theory of universal grammar. Some elements like the binding-principles and some lexical rules probably have close analogous in many other languages.