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Neural Communication. The Nerve Impulse. Neural Communication. Otto Loewi. Nobel Prize in 1936 Forced to leave Germany in 1938 Became US citizen in 1941 Worked at Woods Hole Institute Name pronounced as “low”. Loewi’s Experiment. KW 5-2. The first known neurotransmitter. acetylcholine

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Neural Communication

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Neural Communication


The Nerve Impulse


Neural Communication


Otto Loewi

  • Nobel Prize in 1936

  • Forced to leave Germany in 1938

  • Became US citizen in 1941

  • Worked at Woods Hole Institute

  • Name pronounced as “low”


Loewi’s Experiment

KW 5-2


The first known neurotransmitter

  • acetylcholine

  • first neurotransmitter identified (by Otto Loewi, 1921)

  • Movement: causes muscles to contract

  • Memory: dies in Alzheimer’s disease


Autonomic NT’s

KW 5-17


Ach Pathways

KW 5-19


Synapse structures

KW 5-4


Steps

KW 5-5


Step 1


ACh Synthesis

Acetylcholine

Bonded to form


Step 2


Step 3


Step 4


Step 5


Step 6


Modifying Neural Messages

  • drug agonists - enhance potency of neurotransmitter

  • drug antagonists - reduce effectiveness


Neurotransmitter

molecule

Receiving cell

membrane

Agonist mimics

neurotransmitter

Receptor site on

receiving neuron

Antagonist

blocks

neurotransmitter

Agonist and Antagonists


Pain Killers

  • Endorphins

  • natural opiates

  • natural key

  • Morphine

  • Opium poppy

  • Agonist

  • Naloxone

  • Antagonist


Agonist and antagonist


Step 7


Reuptake and breakdown


AChE


Ach and AChE

KW 5-11


NT characteristics

KW 5-9


Monoamine Neurotransmitters

  • the catecholamines:

    • Dopamine

      • found at substantia nigra and limbic system

      • regulates emotion & movement

    • Norepinephrine

      • found in brain stem and subcortex

      • regulates emotion, reward, sleep, mood

    • Epinephrine

      • Found adrenal glands

      • may help regulate blood pressure


Catecholamine synthesis

KW 5-12


Catecholamine Pathways

KW 5-19


Dopamine pathways

Neural Communication


Monoamine Neurotransmitters

  • Serotonin

    • found in raphe nuclei in brain stem

    • regulates temperature, sensory perception and sleep onset

    • LSD and antidepressants affect serotonin (antidepressants particularly affect serotonin reuptake)


Serotonin


Serotonin Pathways

KW 5-19


Neural Communication

Serotonin pathways


Drug Effects


Classes of NT


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