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Neural Communication. The Nerve Impulse. Neural Communication. Otto Loewi. Nobel Prize in 1936 Forced to leave Germany in 1938 Became US citizen in 1941 Worked at Woods Hole Institute Name pronounced as “low”. Loewi’s Experiment. KW 5-2. The first known neurotransmitter. acetylcholine

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otto loewi
Otto Loewi
  • Nobel Prize in 1936
  • Forced to leave Germany in 1938
  • Became US citizen in 1941
  • Worked at Woods Hole Institute
  • Name pronounced as “low”
the first known neurotransmitter
The first known neurotransmitter
  • acetylcholine
  • first neurotransmitter identified (by Otto Loewi, 1921)
  • Movement: causes muscles to contract
  • Memory: dies in Alzheimer’s disease
steps
Steps

KW 5-5

ach synthesis
ACh Synthesis

Acetylcholine

Bonded to form

modifying neural messages
Modifying Neural Messages
  • drug agonists - enhance potency of neurotransmitter
  • drug antagonists - reduce effectiveness
agonist and antagonists

Neurotransmitter

molecule

Receiving cell

membrane

Agonist mimics

neurotransmitter

Receptor site on

receiving neuron

Antagonist

blocks

neurotransmitter

Agonist and Antagonists
pain killers
Pain Killers
  • Endorphins
  • natural opiates
  • natural key
  • Morphine
  • Opium poppy
  • Agonist
  • Naloxone
  • Antagonist
slide28

Monoamine Neurotransmitters

  • the catecholamines:
    • Dopamine
      • found at substantia nigra and limbic system
      • regulates emotion & movement
    • Norepinephrine
      • found in brain stem and subcortex
      • regulates emotion, reward, sleep, mood
    • Epinephrine
      • Found adrenal glands
      • may help regulate blood pressure
monoamine neurotransmitters
Monoamine Neurotransmitters
  • Serotonin
    • found in raphe nuclei in brain stem
    • regulates temperature, sensory perception and sleep onset
    • LSD and antidepressants affect serotonin (antidepressants particularly affect serotonin reuptake)
neural communication35
Neural Communication

Serotonin pathways

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