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Cell Transport and Division. Rebecca Maloney, Ciara O’Shea, Madeleine Skipworth , Will Rips, Jonathan Wakeman Period 1. Passive Transport. Movement of material down the concentration gradient Does NOT require energy from the cell Diffusion

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Cell transport and division

Cell Transport and Division

Rebecca Maloney, Ciara O’Shea, Madeleine Skipworth, Will Rips, Jonathan Wakeman

Period 1


Passive transport
Passive Transport

  • Movement of material down the concentration gradient

  • Does NOT require energy from the cell

  • Diffusion

    • The movement of random particles down the concentration gradient to achieve equilibrium

  • Osmosis

    • The movement of water to create equilibrium


Diffusion
Diffusion

  • Facilitated Diffusion

    • Passive transport by proteins (no energy required)

    • Channel Proteins

      • Form channels to allow specific molecules to flow through

    • Carrier Proteins

      • Change shape to allow a substance to pass through the membrane


Diffusion1
Diffusion

  • Isotonic

    • The [solutes] and [water] inside and outside the cell are the same

  • Hypotonic

    • the [solutes] outside the cell lower than inside the cell. The [water] is higher outside the cell.

  • Hypertonic

    • The [solutes] outside the cell is higher than inside the cell. The [water] is lower outside the cell


Active transport
Active Transport

  • Movement of materials though a membrane AGAINST a concentration gradient

    • Requires energy from cell


Transport of large molecules
Transport of Large Molecules

  • Endocytosis- the process by which a cell surrounds and takes in material from its environment.(engulfea)

  • Exocytosis- the expulsion or secretion of materials from a cell.



Cell cycle
Cell Cycle

  • The life cycle of a cell; events when the cell grows and divides


Mitosis
Mitosis

  • Interphase

    • When the cell grows and replicates its DNA and centrioles

  • Prophase

    • Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Centrioles separate, and a spindle forms. The nuclear envelope begins to break down


Mitosis1
Mitosis

  • Metaphase

    • Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each one is connected to a spindle fiver at its centromere

  • Anaphase

    • The sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart


Mitosis2
Mitosis

  • Telophase

    • The chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell, the chromosomes begin to loose their definite shape

  • Cytokinesis

    • The cytoplasm pinches in half, each daughter cell has an identical set of chromosomes


Control of cell cycle
Control of Cell Cycle

  • Enzymes work to monitor a cells progress from phase to phase during the cell cycle

  • Some enzymes work to replicate DNA, some begin cell division, and others control the rest of the cell cycle


Cancer
Cancer

  • A mistake in the cell cycle

  • Cancer is the result of uncontrolled cell division caused by genetic and environmental factors

  • Uncontrolled cell division occurs when

    • Cells fail to produce certain enzymes

    • Enzymes are over produced

    • Enzymes are produced at the wrong time


Stages of cancer
Stages of Cancer

  • Cancer cells result from a change in one or more genes

  • Form masses of tissue called tumors that deprive normal cells of nutrients

  • Later cancer can enter the circulatory system and spread throughout the body


Question 1
Question 1

Passive transport is the movement of materials _________ the concentration gradient.

a. Through

b. Against

c. Down

d. Up


Question 2
Question 2

Osmosis if the movement of ________ to create equilibrium.

  • Water

  • Particles

  • Molecules

  • Cells


Question 3
Question 3

What is the correct order of the cell cycle?

  • G1, G2, S, M

  • M, S, G1, G2

  • S, G1, M, G2

  • M, G1, S, G2


Question 4
Question 4

Which phase is this?

  • Metaphase

  • Anaphase

  • Prophase

  • Telophase


Question 5
Question 5

Which type of transport requires energy?

  • Active

  • Passive


Question 6
Question 6

What is the first stage of mitosis?

  • Interphase

  • Prophase

  • Anaphase

  • Cytokinesis


Question 7
Question 7

________ solution: the [solutes] outside the cell is lower than inside the cell.

  • Isotonic

  • Hypertonic

  • Hypotonic


Question 8
Question 8

What does [x] mean?


Question 9
Question 9

Cancer is the result of what?


Question 10
Question 10

What is one example of uncontrolled cell division?


Answer key
Answer Key

10. Cells fail to produce certain enzymes/ enzymes are overproduced/ enzymes are produced at the wrong time

  • C

  • A

  • D

  • A

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • Concentration of x

  • Uncontrolled cell division


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