M exico s past success chlordane ddt and pcbs
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M EXICO’S PAST SUCCESS: CHLORDANE, DDT AND PCBs. DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH ON CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL RISKS INE-SEMARNAT Mario Yarto-Ramírez ; José Castro-Díaz; Arturo Gavilán-García 229th ACS National Meeting March 15th, 2005. I. II. III. IV. CONTENT. INTRODUCTION

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M EXICO’S PAST SUCCESS: CHLORDANE, DDT AND PCBs

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M exico s past success chlordane ddt and pcbs

MEXICO’S PAST SUCCESS: CHLORDANE, DDT AND PCBs

DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH ON CHEMICAL

SUBSTANCES AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL RISKS

INE-SEMARNAT

Mario Yarto-Ramírez; José Castro-Díaz; Arturo Gavilán-García

229th ACS National Meeting

March 15th, 2005


Content

I

II

III

IV

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

CONCLUSIONS


Introduction

I

INTRODUCTION


Introduction1

I

INTRODUCTION

  • A well-known group of toxic chemicals are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  • Their properties include:

    • high toxicity

    • persistence in the environment

    • long-range transport in the atmosphere

    • accumulation in fatty tissue.

  • Direct contact with POPs can result in acute effects; accidents with POPs used as pesticides or as raw materials for industrial processes have killed workers or made them seriously ill after different kinds of exposure.


Introduction2

I

INTRODUCTION

North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC)

North American Free Trade Agreement, 1994

(NAFTA)

Canada, Mexico & The United States

Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CCA)

Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative (SMOC), 1995

Task Forces

North American Regional Action Plans (NARAPs)

DDT; Chlordane; PCBs; Mercury; Dioxins, Furans & Hexachlorobenzene; Monitoring & Assessment

Task Forces for each NARAP

Government, Industry, Academy & NGOs

Monitoring & Assessment (CENICA)


Introduction3

I

INTRODUCTION

  • The SMOC project of the CEC was created as an ongoing initiative to reduce the risks of toxic substances to human health and the environment in North America. The project provides a forum for:

    • identifying priority chemical pollution issues of regional concern

    • developing of NARAPs to address these priority issues

    • overseeing the implementation of approved NARAPs

    • facilitating and encouraging capacity building & to facilitate cooperation on tri-national agreements and actions for reducing chemical pollution in North America.


Introduction4

I

INTRODUCTION

PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPs)


Methodology

II

METHODOLOGY


Methodology1

II

METHODOLOGY

  • Resolution 95-05 of the NAAEC calls for the development of NARAPs for selected persistent and toxic substance.

  • Each Action Plan is unique and do reflect the differentiated responsibilities of each of the countries, consistent with their respective production, use, and disposal practices for the particular substance.

  • The Working Group delegates a temporary Task Force for implementation: government, industry, environment, and academia.

  • Once the NARAP is approved by the Task Force, it is forwarded to the SMOC and when approved and by the CEC Council, the SMOC Working Group typically forms an Implementation Task Force (ITF).


Methodology2

II

METHODOLOGY

  • Once the ITF is formed, it will develop an Implementation Work Plan, in which it will set priorities for implementation of actions, estimate costs of implementing the actions, develop a schedule and determine roles and responsibilities.

  • Delegates of the Parties to the Task Force are responsible for conveying the Implementation Plan and tracking implementation of actions domestically. In case of Chlordane, DDT and PCBs, Mexico developed several actions to accomplish with the respective NARAP.


M exico s past success chlordane ddt and pcbs

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION


Results from implementation

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

Chlordane

  • Chlordane was originally introduced in Mexico for extensive use in agriculture. In recent years, however, use of this pesticide has been limited to termite control in certain wood products.

  • In 1997, a NARAP was developed as a basis for coordinated regional action to eliminate the use of chlordane in Canada, Mexico, and the United States.


Results from implementation1

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

  • In 1970, chlordane was used for pest management in corn and sorghum.

  • In 1988, its uses were restricted to termite control in urban areas.

  • From 1992 to 1996, 212.8 tonnes of chlordane were imported into Mexico, imported from the US as a technical product.

  • There is little data available on the amplitude of contamination or on the degree of human or biotic exposure to chlordane.


Results from implementation2

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

  • In 1996, communication with CICOPLAFEST was established to determine status and steps to be taken.

  • In 1996, contact with the importing and formulating company, with a view to arranging for the suspension of imports and cancellation of the product’s registration once the remaining stocks were used up.

  • Two pest controllers´ associations were contacted in order to get more information about chlordane generation, uses and management.

  • A list of researchers working in Mexico on topics related to termites and their control was compiled.


Results from implementation3

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

  • In 1996, the pamphlet “Todo lo que usted debe saber sobre el chlordano y su situación en America del Norte” was published.

  • In 1997, a workshop on pesticides for termite control was held.

  • Alternative termite control methods and possible substitutes for chlordane were evaluated: physical barriers, predators, rotation, magnets, Breaking up mounds and queen removal.

  • Use of chlordane in Mexico is currently illegal.

  • Its phase-out is now complete, as the only company holding a chlordane active ingredient registration stopped importing it in 1997 and had no stocks by 1999.


Results from implementation4

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

DDT

  • DDT was introduced in Mexico in the early 1950s for its use in agriculture.

  • In the 1970s, DDT use in agriculture production began to decline as result of environmental concerns and the introduction of stricter limits on foods.

  • By 1997, DDT was registered in Mexico only for use in government-sponsored public health campaigns against malaria transmission & was restricted to selective applications in dwellings.

  • There was only one private company producing DDT in Mexico, and its production was subject to government approval.


Results from implementation5

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

  • In the 1940s and 1950s, malaria was one of the main causes of mortality, responsible for an average of 24,000 deaths annually and afflicting an estimated 2.4 million others.

  • In recent years, the incidences of malaria have declined to less than 5,000 cases. Since 1982 there have been no deaths from malaria.

  • The reduction programme included:

    • community participation in the environmental management of mosquitoes

    • the use of bacilli and nematodes to control the insects

    • improving the Mexican Health Secretariat’s surveillance, diagnosis and treatment system.

  • Through the NARAP, Mexico had committed to a declination on DDT production to 600 tonnes by 1999 and finally stopping its use by 2002.


Results from implementation6

III

Tonnes

Year

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION


Results from implementation7

III

Sonora

Sinaloa

Comarca lagunera

North of Tamaulipas

Tierra caliente

El Soconusco

Use of DDT until 1999

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION


Results from implementation8

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

  • Most of the PCBs present in Mexico were manufactured in The U.S., Europe and Japan, and were being imported by Mexico even during the 1980s.

  • It is estimated that Mexico imported about 13,000 metric tonnes of liquid PCBs.

  • Although they are no longer manufactured in North America, and their use is highly restricted in Canada, Mexico and the United States, large quantities of PCBs are still in use in electrical equipment.


Results from implementation9

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

  • Since 1994, six companies were authorized for PCBs destruction via incineration and five were still authorized by the end of 2000. Nowadays, 22companies are authorized for treatment of oil/materials polluted with PCBs.

  • 8569 tonnes of PCBs were authorized for exportation and incineration by the second semester of year 2000, but only 6,909 tonnes were sent to the Netherlands (48%), Finland (29%) and in small percentage to France, England & Spain.

  • Almost 500 tonnes of PCBs were exported to the U.S. until 1997.


Results from implementation10

III

RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION

  • 3000 tonnes of the PCBs exported were property of “Luz y Fuerza del Centro”, “Petróleos Mexicanos” & “Comisión Federal de Electricidad” all of them companies that belong to the Mexican Government.

  • Almost 300 tonnes of PCBs were treated in Mexico.

  • In December, 2001 a Mexican regulation for PCBs management “NOM-133-ECOL-2000” was published. It establishes that PCB materials have to be disposed of, as maximum, in a period of nine months after being stored as hazardous wastes.


Conclusions

IV

CONCLUSIONS


Conclusions1

IV

CONCLUSIONS

  • As a result of NARAP activities, chlordane and DDT are not longer used or manufactured in Canada, Mexico or the United States.

  • PCBs wastes are currently being disposed according to specific regulations and will be substituted in the remaining electric equipment for safer substances.

  • Mexico’s institutional capacities for monitoring and analyzing chemicals in the environment have been strengthened in terms of information systems and actions to reduce the risks of toxic substances.

  • The design and implementation of a chlordane and DDT sampling and analysis plan for Mexico is included under the Regional Action Plan on Monitoring and Assessment, currently under development.


Conclusions2

IV

CONCLUSIONS

  • This experience has demonstrated the great benefits of regional cooperation when priority is given to the management and control of toxic substances of mutual concern.

  • Mexico has eliminated chlordane and DDT use completely.

  • Current field studies at selected sites in Mexico are being coordinated by INE. These studies are geared towards measuring a number of POPs including chlordane, DDT and PCBs.

  • Furthermore, and in compliance with international initiatives such as the Basel and Stockholm Conventions, Mexico has had the opportunity to take advantage of this regional cooperation and share the experience and expertise gained.


Thank you for your attention myarto@ine gob mx

Thank you for your [email protected]


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