World aids day 1 december a primary vehicle for aids awareness
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World AIDS Day, 1 December: a primary vehicle for AIDS awareness. One of the most successful international days People’s day: awareness -raising activities take place in almost every country A significant media event AIDS organizations mobilize High-level government officials speak out

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World AIDS Day, 1 December: a primary vehicle for AIDS awareness

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World AIDS Day, 1 December:a primary vehicle for AIDS awareness

  • One of the most successful international days

  • People’s day: awareness-raising activities take place in almost every country

  • A significant media event

  • AIDS organizations mobilize

  • High-level government officials speak out

  • Donors commit funds

The World AIDS Campaign

  • Repositioning World AIDS Day to make it a longer campaign

  • Forcing discussion on emerging thematic issues

  • Providing a programmatic thrust to issues

  • Engaging new partners

  • Increasing community participation and ownership

World AIDS Day themes so far

World AIDS Day declared by WHO in 1988

  • 1988: A world united against AIDS

  • 1989: Our lives, our world – let’s take care of each other

  • 1990: Women and AIDS

  • 1991: Sharing the challenge

  • 1992: AIDS – a community commitment

  • 1993: Time to act

  • 1994: AIDS and the family

  • 1995: Shared rights, shared responsibilities

  • 1996: One world, one hope

    Children, young people and AIDS

  • 1997: Children living in a world of AIDS

  • 1998: Force for change – World AIDS Campaign with young people

  • 1999: LISTEN, LEARN, LIVE! World AIDS Campaign with children and young people

    Men and AIDS

  • 2000: AIDS: men make a difference

  • 2001: I care, do you?

  • 2002 and 2003 : Live and let live

Stigma and discrimination

World AIDS Campaign theme for 2002-2003

Live and let live

World AIDS Campaign slogan

Why stigma and discrimination

Stigma and discrimination are major obstacles to effective prevention and care. If we do not address these issues, we will never succeed in our efforts.

−Maria Tallarico, CPA Haiti

Why stigma and discrimination

I believe that, worldwide, the most serious obstacle in the fight against AIDS is stigma and discrimination. Although the forms and context differ, stigma prevails. It affects the rights of PLWHA, societal coping mechanisms and caring for the sick. In most countries, it is a nightmare.

- Abdalla Ismail, CPA Sudan

What is the campaign’s main objective?

To help prevent, reduce or eliminate stigma and discrimination wherever they occur and in all their forms


  • It is created by individuals and society

  • It builds on existing power relations

  • It builds upon and reinforces existing social inequalities and prejudices

  • It is perpetuated overtly and covertly

Health care



The workplace

Legal institutions (judiciary, legislative)



Insurance/social benefits

Existing laws




Stigma and discrimination occur in different settings and services

Factors compounding stigma and discrimination

  • Gender

  • Sexual orientation

  • Race

  • Religious beliefs

  • Place of residence/profession

  • Social status

Is it just about PLWHA?

  • The campaign will address issues related to those who are both HIV-infected and -affected

  • The campaign will address specific stigma and discrimination faced by other populations, e.g. sex workers, men who have sex with men, and injecting drug users.

Internalized stigma

’Perceived’ and ’enacted’ stigma

’Perceived’ stigma refers to the shame associated with HIV and the fear of being discriminated against on account of the illness

’Enacted’ stigma refers to the actual experiences of discrimination

Internalized stigma can be alleviated by strengthening the resolve, commitment and personalized perspective of PLWHA.

How to address internalized stigma

  • Address the problem programmatically

  • Build skills and capacity among HIV-infected and -affected people

  • Prepare people for voluntary disclosure

  • Establish an enabling environment

  • Develop support systems for individuals and groups

  • Put the responsibility where it belongs (examine personal/institutional roles)

Different approaches to reducing stigma and discrimination

  • Rights-based approach

  • Involvement of PLWHA at all stages, especially from the start

  • Individual focus

  • Collective focus

  • Policy-based vs. legal approach

Approaches are complementary and inter-related. Each has a programmatic aspect. The advantages of all approaches need to be maximized.

Approaches are complementary and inter-related. Each has a programmatic aspect. The advantages of all approaches need to be maximized.





Loss of

human rights

Loss of

human rights











The response has to be multi-pronged to break the vicious circle of stigma, discrimination and human rights violations

Campaign entry points can vary

  • All available entry points should be used

  • The different contexts for stigma and discrimination around the world must be taken into account

  • No matter which approach is adopted, it has to address the same main objective











Global teamwork with different players

UNAIDS campaign





Measures & efforts

Country-specific institutions

NGO’s, government heads,

Health Ministers, local institutions



Measures & efforts


Employees of institutions

Hospital, health-care centres, schools, churches, the judicial system, companies

PLWHA, their families,

other society members

Global vs. local perspective

  • The UNAIDS campaign must be seen as an integral part of international efforts.

  • Target individuals and organizations have different needs and knowledge standards.

  • Local efforts may be linked to the UNAIDS theme but can also work completely independently, based on local circumstances and prejudices.

Role of the UNAIDS campaign

  • Raise broad awareness with regard to the theme of stigma and discrimination

  • Be effective beyond 1 December 2003

  • Initiate concrete changes on a global level

  • Initiate effective responses at the local level

Two-phase approach

Phase I:

Phase II:













of a variety

of aspects related

to stigma and


Drive action at

institutional levels


broad awareness


driven measures



Raise broad awareness:

Promote understanding of the different aspects and ways in which PLWHA and their families are affected in their daily struggle against stigma and discrimination.

Reach a broader understanding of why stigma and discrimination breach human rights.

Reduce the number and frequency of discriminating acts worldwide.

Action-driven measures:

Document tangible improvements regarding human rights and legal perspectives on a local institutional level.

Stimulate and support government and nongovernmental efforts to reduce the level of stigma and discrimination in-country.

Empower PLWHA by showing them specific cases of where stigma and discrimination have already been reduced.

Objectives of the two phases

Phase II

Phase I

Sensitize a broad audience for aspects of stigma and discrimination and reduce their daily discriminative acts

Generate tangible changes on an institutional level. Prove the effectiveness of Phase 1 with real success stories

PLWHA deserve


Only minority

groups are facing

the problem of AIDS

Infection is

one’s own fault

We have to pay

higher health-care costs

because of PLWHA


by God

At least it reduces

the population

of developing




It is a developing

world disease

People die

anyway, so why

care too much


Medical care


Legal system’s

discriminatory judgements

Denial of education

Violation against

minority groups





No access

to AIDS medications




media coverage

Key messages: exploring the themeof stigma and discrimination

Goverment spends

too much money


Which target groups are currently affected by these issues?

  • PLWHA and their families and communities

  • Government

  • Employees and employers

  • Children/youth

  • Faith-based organizations

  • Local AIDS organizations

  • Journalists

  • Health-care workers

  • Other NGOs

PLWHA/their families

Members of society in

developed countries

Members of society in

developing countries


What are the assigned target viewpoints?

PLWHA go through a process of grieving for their own lives, which eventually should lead to an acceptance of their diagnosis. However, even when people do manage to find a balance in their own lives, society and institutions often perpetuate the idea that those infected with HIV are lesser members of the community.

What does this

mean in terms

of communication?

We need a message that

motivates PLWHA and

their communities

as well as all members of

society worldwide which

enables PLWHA to live

their lives to the fullest.

They marginalize the problem of AIDS

and have no insights about the daily struggles

and limitations confronting PLWHA, since

prevention campaigns always focus on the

details of infection.

In developing countries, AIDS is often

viewed as a punishment by God or a poverty-

related disease.

Do not have enough knowledge or background

information about the daily struggle confronting PLWHA.



Judicial system

Private companies

Health-care settings

What are the assigned target viewpoints?

PLWHA are not getting the same medical treatment as others, because of fear of infection.

What does that

mean in terms of


PLWHA are not being offered the same business and education opportunities, because there‘s a common lack of career thinking regarding PLWHA

PLWHA are not getting the same justice as

others. They do not have sufficient legal protection from violence and biased verdicts.

We need a message

that ensures broader access to all areas to let PLWHA live

their lives

PLWHA do not get the same respect as others

because AIDS is sometimes seen as a punishment from God, particularly in relation to injecting drug users and men who have sex with men.

Faith-based organizations

PLWHA do not get the same opportunities in the workplace as others, because there‘s still the

perception that it is not worth investing in people who will die anyway.

PLWHA do not get the same treatment/access to antiretroviral programmes since therapies are costly and pharmaceutical companies are not willing to reduce prices for developing countries.

  • The potential core idea must be simple and flexible

The challenges of defining a common platform for:

  • different areas related to stigma and discrimination

  • different age groups

  • women and men

  • different ethnic environments

  • different target groups

  • different socioeconomic contexts

    The future communication platform has to:

  • be an outstanding creative concept that generates impact without excessive spending

  • ensure regional executional adaptations

  • ensure a uniform worldwide tonality


personal empowerment of PLWHA and their families to believe in a better future

sending a positive signal that underscores the importance of living life fully

demonstrating the necessity of standing up and fighting for rights on a daily basis

emphasizing a powerful will to live, despite HIV infection


a message for institutions to ensure access to care for PLWHA

a strong correlation with human rights inherent in ALL people

a call to question everybody‘s daily thinking and behaviour

a call to society worldwide for greater integration of, and compassion for, PLWHA

The core idea

let live!



Why do we believe in this core idea?


  • It is positive and motivating for all involved

  • It contains the most essential aspect related to AIDS: life.

  • It is based on the most relevant needs

  • It is flexible enough to use for specific and/or local issues and communication measures

  • It is relevant for all cultures, each gender, different age groups and socioeconomic contexts

  • It covers both civil and institutional domains

Global positioning

Two-year objective

Generate a broader global awareness of stigma and discrimination, and encourage social change.

Conventions to break

Several AIDS-related issues are often

either communicated in a harmless way or

operate with shocking and pessimistic

images. Normally, they focus only on

a narrow target group.

Target insight

Once PLWHA have accepted their destiny,

their strongest wish is to live their life to

the fullest. However, they struggle daily

with the limitations caused by stigma and

discrimination from other members of society.


Live and let live

Brand personality

Empowering, caring, progressive, open-minded, touching and sensitive people

Brand belief

UNAIDS believes that stigma and discrimination against PLWHA is a violation of their human rights. UNAIDS also holds that stigma and discrimination are detrimental to HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support efforts. Part of an effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic includes improving the quality of life and reducing social vulnerability of all people.

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