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Bermudagrass – new ways to look at an old friend. Mike Richardson University of Arkansas. A Historical Perspective. Common bermudagrass is utilized in a range of turf situations – quality is poor Release of vegetative bermudagrass cultivars with increased quality and uniformity

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Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Bermudagrass – new ways to look at an old friend

Mike Richardson

University of Arkansas


A historical perspective
A Historical Perspective

  • Common bermudagrass is utilized in a range of turf situations – quality is poor

  • Release of vegetative bermudagrass cultivars with increased quality and uniformity

    • U3 (1957),“Tif” cultivars (60-70s), “Mid” cultivars (1970s)

  • Breeding efforts initiated in early 1980s to enhance quality and performance of seeded bermudagrass

  • Release of first “improved” seeded cultivars

    • Guymon (1982), NuMex Sahara (1987) Mirage (1992)

  • Release of seeded cultivars with significant improvements in quality

    • ‘Princess-77’, ‘Riviera’, and ‘Yukon’ (late 1990’s)


Ntep bermudagrass trials seeded vs vegetative entries
NTEP Bermudagrass TrialsSeeded vs. Vegetative Entries



Turfgrass quality of seeded and vegetative bermudagrasses across 12 locations 2003 data
Turfgrass quality of seeded and vegetative bermudagrasses across 12 locations (2003 data)

LSD (0.05)

Princess-77

Midlawn

Tifsport

Riviera

Patriot

Tifway

SEEDED ENTRIES


Winterkill of vegetative and seeded bermudagrasses at stillwater ok 2003

Princess-77 across 12 locations (2003 data)

Tifway

Tifsport

Midlawn

Riviera

% winterkill of vegetative and seeded bermudagrasses at Stillwater, OK (2003)

LSD (0.05)


Divot studies at uofa
Divot studies at UofA across 12 locations (2003 data)

  • Compare divot recovery of cultivars in NTEP bermudagrass trial


Simulating Divots With a Motorized Divot Cutter across 12 locations (2003 data)



* cultivars

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*- vegetative entries

Divot recovery of bermudagrass cultivars

days to 50% divot recovery


Questions to be addressed by research on seeded bermudagrass
Questions to be addressed by research on seeded bermudagrass cultivars

  • Cultivar differences

    • Quality / Stress tolerance / divot studies

  • Propagation methods

    • Seeding dates / rates / techniques

  • Weed Control

    • Herbicide timing and tolerance

  • Traffic tolerance

  • Sod Production



Seeding date trial 2000 and 2001

Seeding Date of seeded bermudagrass

15 April

15 May

15 June

15 July

Cultivar

Jackpot

Mirage

Mohawk

Princess

Sahara

Yukon

Seeding Date Trial2000 and 2001

All cultivars seeded at 48.8 kg PLS / ha (1 lb / 1000 ft2)

RCBD with 4 replications


Seeding date study evaluations
Seeding Date Study of seeded bermudagrassEvaluations

  • Establishment rates

  • Stolon production

  • Rhizome production

  • Percent winter recovery


Minimum air temperature at the Fayetteville Research Station of seeded bermudagrass

Fayetteville, AR


Effect of planting date on recovery of seeded bermudagrasses from winter injury 2000 01

a of seeded bermudagrass

a

a

b

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

% recovery

b

b

a

b

b

a

b

b

c

c

c

c

b

Jackpot

Mirage

Mohawk

Princess

Sahara

Yukon

Effect of planting date on recovery of seeded bermudagrasses from winter injury (2000-01)

Measured on April 28, 2001


May seeding of seeded bermudagrass

Yukon

Princess-77

Jackpot

April seeding

Yukon

Mirage

Photo on April 28, 2001


July of seeded bermudagrass

June

May

April



Univeristy of Arkansas of seeded bermudagrass

Razorback Football Stadium


South Endzone of seeded bermudagrass

1997

2001


The height of the southern end of the stadium caused shadowing problems on the last 20 yards of turf


Reduced light weakened the turf going into the winter shadowing problems on the last 20 yards of turf

Reduced light led to longer durations of cold temperatures during the winter


Attempt to recover this area with an improved seeded bermudagrass

Winterkill in south end zone -Spring, 2002

(associated with stadium expansion)


Seed Prep bermudagrass

  • Verticut in several directions

  • Vacuum debris


Seeding methods
Seeding methods bermudagrass

  • Riviera bermudagrass seeded at 48 kg PLS / ha (1.0 l lb. / 1000 ft2)

  • Top-dressed with ~3 mm of sand

  • Covered with geotextile for 7 days


Riviera Seed bermudagrass

Washed Tifway Sod

24 days after planting


24 days after planting bermudagrass

Riviera Seed

Washed Tifway Sod (before planting)



‘Riviera’ bermudagrass

April, 2003

‘Tifway’

May, 2002


Traffic injury bermudagrass

Washed

Tifway

Sod

Seeded

Riviera

Seeded

Riviera

Washed

Tifway

Sod

Spring, 2003


Spring, 2002 bermudagrass

‘Tifway’

May 15

Traffic injury

Spring, 2003

‘Riviera’

May 23


Early spring green-up of Riviera compared to Tifway bermudagrass

April 2, 2004

April 19, 2004


Riviera bermudagrass

Tifway

April 19, 2004


Traffic tolerance of Riviera was improved with maturity bermudagrass

May 23, 2003

1st season

April 19, 2004

2nd season



Typical problem on a sports field

high-traffic areas

  • Previous options include sprigs or sod

  • Potential to re-vegetate this area with a seeded bermudagrass

  • When can this be most effectively accomplished ?


Hypothesis dormant seeding bermudagrass will enhance recovery of damaged turf
Hypothesis: Dormant seeding bermudagrass will enhance recovery of damaged turf

  • Seed worn areas during periods of low activity

  • Allow spring activities to incorporate the seed


Dormant seeding bermudagrass into an existing turf area

Dormant seeding recovery of damaged turf

Normal seeding

Dormant seeding bermudagrass into an existing turf area

  • Two cultivars

    • Riviera

    • Princess-77

  • Seeding rates

    • 1.0 lb PLS / 1000 ft2

    • 2.0 lb PLS / 1000 ft2

  • Seeding dates

    • Feb. 15

    • Mar. 15

    • Apr. 15

    • May 15


Temperature data loggers were used to monitor soil temperature during the establishment period.


Soil temperature and germination dates for various seeding date treatments fayetteville ar 2004

May temperature during the establishment period.

First germination observed

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

Soil temperature and germination dates for various seeding date treatments (Fayetteville, AR - 2004)

65 °F

55 °F

F

M

A

M

Seeding dates


Establishment rates of ‘Riviera’ and ‘Princess-77’ bermudagrass, as affected by dormant seeding compared to spring seeding


Establishment of riviera bermudagrass on june 1 2004
Establishment of Riviera bermudagrass on June 1, 2004 bermudagrass, as affected by dormant seeding compared to spring seeding

Seeding Rate

(lb. PLS / M)

2.0 lb.

1.0 lb.

Feb. 15

Mar. 15

Apr. 15

May 15

Seeding Date


Establishment of riviera bermudagrass on june 16 2004
Establishment of Riviera bermudagrass on June 16, 2004 bermudagrass, as affected by dormant seeding compared to spring seeding

Seeding Rate

(lb. PLS / M)

2.0 lb.

1.0 lb.

Feb. 15

Mar. 15

Apr. 15

May 15

Seeding Date


Determining seedling density in dormant seeding treatments bermudagrass, as affected by dormant seeding compared to spring seeding


Seedling density, as affected by cultivar, seeding date, and seeding rate

Cultivar

Seeding Date

Seeding Rate

A

A

A

B

B

B

B

B


Summary of dormant seeding trials
Summary of dormant seeding trials seeding rate

  • Early germination and faster establishment rates were observed with dormant seeding dates (Feb / Mar) compared to traditional seeding dates (Apr / May).

  • Seed dormancy mechanisms may be overcome with natural soil weathering.


Summary
Summary seeding rate

  • Improved seeded bermudagrasses offer a viable alternative to traditional methods of sprigged or sodded bermudagrass

  • Improved cold tolerance can be very beneficial in transition zone climates

  • Planting methods can be improved to hasten recovery of damaged turf





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