Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend
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Bermudagrass – new ways to look at an old friend. Mike Richardson University of Arkansas. A Historical Perspective. Common bermudagrass is utilized in a range of turf situations – quality is poor Release of vegetative bermudagrass cultivars with increased quality and uniformity

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Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Bermudagrass – new ways to look at an old friend

Mike Richardson

University of Arkansas


A historical perspective

A Historical Perspective

  • Common bermudagrass is utilized in a range of turf situations – quality is poor

  • Release of vegetative bermudagrass cultivars with increased quality and uniformity

    • U3 (1957),“Tif” cultivars (60-70s), “Mid” cultivars (1970s)

  • Breeding efforts initiated in early 1980s to enhance quality and performance of seeded bermudagrass

  • Release of first “improved” seeded cultivars

    • Guymon (1982), NuMex Sahara (1987) Mirage (1992)

  • Release of seeded cultivars with significant improvements in quality

    • ‘Princess-77’, ‘Riviera’, and ‘Yukon’ (late 1990’s)


Ntep bermudagrass trials seeded vs vegetative entries

NTEP Bermudagrass TrialsSeeded vs. Vegetative Entries


Update from the recent ntep trial

Update from the recent NTEP trial


Turfgrass quality of seeded and vegetative bermudagrasses across 12 locations 2003 data

Turfgrass quality of seeded and vegetative bermudagrasses across 12 locations (2003 data)

LSD (0.05)

Princess-77

Midlawn

Tifsport

Riviera

Patriot

Tifway

SEEDED ENTRIES


Winterkill of vegetative and seeded bermudagrasses at stillwater ok 2003

Princess-77

Tifway

Tifsport

Midlawn

Riviera

% winterkill of vegetative and seeded bermudagrasses at Stillwater, OK (2003)

LSD (0.05)


Divot studies at uofa

Divot studies at UofA

  • Compare divot recovery of cultivars in NTEP bermudagrass trial


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Simulating Divots With a Motorized Divot Cutter


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Divot recovery of several seeded and vegetative bermudagrass cultivars


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*- vegetative entries

Divot recovery of bermudagrass cultivars

days to 50% divot recovery


Questions to be addressed by research on seeded bermudagrass

Questions to be addressed by research on seeded bermudagrass

  • Cultivar differences

    • Quality / Stress tolerance / divot studies

  • Propagation methods

    • Seeding dates / rates / techniques

  • Weed Control

    • Herbicide timing and tolerance

  • Traffic tolerance

  • Sod Production


Effects of cultivar and seeding date on first year survival of seeded bermudagrass

Effects of cultivar and seeding date on first-year survival of seeded bermudagrass


Seeding date trial 2000 and 2001

Seeding Date

15 April

15 May

15 June

15 July

Cultivar

Jackpot

Mirage

Mohawk

Princess

Sahara

Yukon

Seeding Date Trial2000 and 2001

All cultivars seeded at 48.8 kg PLS / ha (1 lb / 1000 ft2)

RCBD with 4 replications


Seeding date study evaluations

Seeding Date StudyEvaluations

  • Establishment rates

  • Stolon production

  • Rhizome production

  • Percent winter recovery


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Minimum air temperature at the Fayetteville Research Station

Fayetteville, AR


Effect of planting date on recovery of seeded bermudagrasses from winter injury 2000 01

a

a

a

b

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

% recovery

b

b

a

b

b

a

b

b

c

c

c

c

b

Jackpot

Mirage

Mohawk

Princess

Sahara

Yukon

Effect of planting date on recovery of seeded bermudagrasses from winter injury (2000-01)

Measured on April 28, 2001


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

May seeding

Yukon

Princess-77

Jackpot

April seeding

Yukon

Mirage

Photo on April 28, 2001


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

July

June

May

April


Applications of a seeded bermudagrass to an athletic field

Applications of a seeded bermudagrass to an athletic field


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Univeristy of Arkansas

Razorback Football Stadium


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

South Endzone

1997

2001


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

The height of the southern end of the stadium caused shadowing problems on the last 20 yards of turf


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Reduced light weakened the turf going into the winter

Reduced light led to longer durations of cold temperatures during the winter


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Attempt to recover this area with an improved seeded bermudagrass

Winterkill in south end zone -Spring, 2002

(associated with stadium expansion)


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Seed Prep

  • Verticut in several directions

  • Vacuum debris


Seeding methods

Seeding methods

  • Riviera bermudagrass seeded at 48 kg PLS / ha (1.0 l lb. / 1000 ft2)

  • Top-dressed with ~3 mm of sand

  • Covered with geotextile for 7 days


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Riviera Seed

Washed Tifway Sod

24 days after planting


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

24 days after planting

Riviera Seed

Washed Tifway Sod (before planting)


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Preparing for first game - August, 2002


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

‘Riviera’

April, 2003

‘Tifway’

May, 2002


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Traffic injury

Washed

Tifway

Sod

Seeded

Riviera

Seeded

Riviera

Washed

Tifway

Sod

Spring, 2003


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Spring, 2002

‘Tifway’

May 15

Traffic injury

Spring, 2003

‘Riviera’

May 23


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Early spring green-up of Riviera compared to Tifway

April 2, 2004

April 19, 2004


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Riviera

Tifway

April 19, 2004


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Traffic tolerance of Riviera was improved with maturity

May 23, 2003

1st season

April 19, 2004

2nd season


Re establishment of bermudagrass into high traffic areas of a sports field

Re-establishment of bermudagrass into high-traffic areas of a sports field


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Typical problem on

high-traffic areas

  • Previous options include sprigs or sod

  • Potential to re-vegetate this area with a seeded bermudagrass

  • When can this be most effectively accomplished ?


Hypothesis dormant seeding bermudagrass will enhance recovery of damaged turf

Hypothesis: Dormant seeding bermudagrass will enhance recovery of damaged turf

  • Seed worn areas during periods of low activity

  • Allow spring activities to incorporate the seed


Dormant seeding bermudagrass into an existing turf area

Dormant seeding

Normal seeding

Dormant seeding bermudagrass into an existing turf area

  • Two cultivars

    • Riviera

    • Princess-77

  • Seeding rates

    • 1.0 lb PLS / 1000 ft2

    • 2.0 lb PLS / 1000 ft2

  • Seeding dates

    • Feb. 15

    • Mar. 15

    • Apr. 15

    • May 15


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Temperature data loggers were used to monitor soil temperature during the establishment period.


Soil temperature and germination dates for various seeding date treatments fayetteville ar 2004

May

First germination observed

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

Soil temperature and germination dates for various seeding date treatments (Fayetteville, AR - 2004)

65 °F

55 °F

F

M

A

M

Seeding dates


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Establishment rates of ‘Riviera’ and ‘Princess-77’ bermudagrass, as affected by dormant seeding compared to spring seeding


Establishment of riviera bermudagrass on june 1 2004

Establishment of Riviera bermudagrass on June 1, 2004

Seeding Rate

(lb. PLS / M)

2.0 lb.

1.0 lb.

Feb. 15

Mar. 15

Apr. 15

May 15

Seeding Date


Establishment of riviera bermudagrass on june 16 2004

Establishment of Riviera bermudagrass on June 16, 2004

Seeding Rate

(lb. PLS / M)

2.0 lb.

1.0 lb.

Feb. 15

Mar. 15

Apr. 15

May 15

Seeding Date


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Determining seedling density in dormant seeding treatments


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Seedling density, as affected by cultivar, seeding date, and seeding rate

Cultivar

Seeding Date

Seeding Rate

A

A

A

B

B

B

B

B


Summary of dormant seeding trials

Summary of dormant seeding trials

  • Early germination and faster establishment rates were observed with dormant seeding dates (Feb / Mar) compared to traditional seeding dates (Apr / May).

  • Seed dormancy mechanisms may be overcome with natural soil weathering.


Summary

Summary

  • Improved seeded bermudagrasses offer a viable alternative to traditional methods of sprigged or sodded bermudagrass

  • Improved cold tolerance can be very beneficial in transition zone climates

  • Planting methods can be improved to hasten recovery of damaged turf


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

  • Riviera bermudagrass at Baum Stadium

  • USGA construction

  • 6 weeks after planting


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Special thanks to Pat Berger for being willing to give these ideas a try…


Bermudagrass new ways to look at an old friend

Thanks for your attention…


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