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Unit 10 - Gases, Liquids and Solids. General Properties : I. Gases: 1. Expansion 2. Compressible 3. Fluid 4. Low density 5. Diffusion 6. Effusion. 7. Condense to liquid 8. No definite shape 9. No definite volume 10. Change volume with Temperature

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Unit 10 gases liquids and solids
Unit 10 - Gases, Liquids and Solids

General Properties:

I. Gases:

1. Expansion

2. Compressible

3. Fluid

4. Low density

5. Diffusion

6. Effusion


7. Condense to liquid

8. No definite shape

9. No definite volume

10. Change volume with Temperature

11. Change volume with Pressure

12. Deposition (to solid)

Fluid: Substance that can flow and take shape of container


II. Liquids:

1. Definite volume 2. Fluid

3. High density 4. Diffuse

5. Incompressible 6. Dissolve solids

7. Surface tension 8. Boil / evaporate

9. Solidify


III. Solids:

1. Definite shape

2. Definite volume

3. Not fluid 4. Melt

5. High density

6. Incompressible

7. Slow diffusion

8. Sublimation (solid to gas)

9. Rigid form



Kinetic Properties (KMT) concentration: (Movement)

I. Gases:

1. Tiny particles

2. Constant straight line motion

3. Elastic collisions

4. Little or no attraction forces

5. Average kinetic energy

KE = ½ mv2


II. Liquids: concentration

1. Tiny particles

2. Constant motion (limited)

3. Elastic collisions

4. Some intermolecular attractions

5. Closely fit together


III. Solids: concentration

1. Tiny particles

2. Constant vibratory motion

3. Strong intermolecular forces

4. Rarely move position

5. Closely packed (fixed position)


Examples of gases liquids and solids
Examples of Gases, Liquids, and Solids concentration

Gases: elements and compounds

Elements: a) monatomic gases – He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

b) diatomic gases – H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2

Compounds: CO, CO2, NO, NO2, N2O, N2O3, NH3, C2H6, C3H8, SO2, SO3, AsH3 …..


Liquids concentration: elements and compounds

Elements: Hg, Br

Compounds: HOH, C3H2OH, C3H5(OH)3, C2H5OH, C8H18 …


Solids concentration: elements and compounds

Elements: most metals (Except Hg)

nonmetals P, S, I, C

Compounds: NaCl, NaHCO3, CuSO4,

MgSO4, AlNa(SO4)2,

C6H12O6, C12H22O11…


Types of Solids concentration

1) Crystalline: crystal lattice (3-D)

Shapes: unit cells – cubic, body center or face center

Basic crystal systems:

a) isomeric cubic d) orthorhombic

b) tetragonal e) monoclinic

c) trigonal f) triclinic

g) hexagonal


Types of crystals
Types of Crystals concentration

  • Ionic – Hard, Brittle, High melting pt.

    examples: NaCl, CuSO4, AgNO3

  • Covalent – Soft, Low melting pt.

    examples: NH3, HOH, CH4

  • Network - hardness vary, High MP

    examples: diamond, graphite, quartz

  • Metallic – MP range, hardness range

    examples: Cu, Fe, Al,…


Forming Crystals concentration: evaporation or from magma SLOW cooling: large perfect crystal

Defect: flaws (mistake in crystals)

a) foreign atom /ion (changes color )

b) internal misalignment (fuzzy)

c) dislocation - edge - screwed

Edge dislocation: extra layer of atoms extends part of the way into a crystal

Screwed dislocation: unequal growth while the crystal form


2) concentrationMicrocrystalline

Fullerines / Buckyballs

contain carbon (graphite)16–128atoms

sulfur 4 – 8 atoms

phosphorus 30 +/- atoms

Properties: strong, durable, hollow, fluffy

shapes are spheres or tubes

network bonding

Examples: tennis racket frames

golf club shafts

airplanes frame / outer covering


Types of solids
Types of Solids concentration:

3) Amorphous: is also called meta-stable liquids or super -cooled liquids

Properties: -melting pt range

-weak intermolecular forces

-temperature sensitive

-random molecular arrangement

Examples: Glass, Rubber, Plastics, Waxes


Phases concentration


Below 0 concentrationoC


Phase changes
Phase Changes concentration

I. Chart-

G

Evaporate/

Condense

boil

Deposition

L

Sublimation

Solidify

Melt

S


II. Graph- concentration

release energy

T

E

M

P

G

condense

boil

L

solidify

add energy

melt

S

E N E R G Y


III. Diagram- concentration

4

  • Melting Pt

  • Boiling Pt

  • Triple pt

  • 4. Critical pt

P

S

L

1

2

1 atm

G

3

Temp


Terms concentration

Melting: solid to liquid (add heat)

Evaporation: liquid to gas without boiling

Boiling: change of liquid to bubbles of vapor that appear throughout the liquid

Condensation: gas to liquid (release heat)

Solidification/Freezing: liquids to solids

Sublimation: solid to gas without becoming a liquid Ex: I2, CO2, paradichlorobenzene

Deposition: gas to solid without passing liq.



Holy moley
Holy Moley!!!!! concentration


Le Chatelier & Stress concentration

I’ll start will an easy concept!


Equilibrium le chatelier stress
Equilibrium (Le Chatelier & Stress) concentration

Open System:

Evaporation

Condensation

cool

Room Temp


Closed System: concentration

Dynamic Equilibrium:

evaporation = condensation

at one specific temperature

Equilibrium: Two Opposing changes occur at equal rate


Boiling Point concentration

Boil at same temperature until all liquid has vaporized

Vapor pressure=atmospheric pressure

Boiling Point changes with

Pressure and / or Altitude changes :

Increase pressure, BP (pressure cooker)

Decrease pressure, BP (high Mt range)


Boiling and elevation
BOILING and ELEVATION concentration

  • DEATH VALLEY CA 100.3C

  • HAZLET NJ 100.0C

  • BOULDER CO 94.0C

  • LEADVILLE CO 89.0C

  • MT WHITNEY CA 85.0C

  • MT McKINLEY CA 79.0C

  • MT EVEREST TIBET 70.0C


Stress concentration Heat or Cool:

HEAT

COOL

Explosion

Implode

Equilibrium will shift to ease stress


Water
Water concentration

Ocean (saltwater), river, lakes and glaciers (freshwater), cover about 75% of earth’s surface. Living things are 70% - 90% HOH.

Physical Properties of Water:

1. Ice(s), Water(l), Vapor(g)

2. Angular molecule O

1050 H H


3. concentrationColorless, transparent, odorless, tasteless4. Intermolecular forces (Hydrogen bond)

5. Highly polar

6. Rigid structure as solid “hex” shape

7. Most dense 4oC

8. FP 0oC / BP 100oC at STP

9. D(l) = 1.00 g/cm3

10. D(s) = .917 g/cm3 Ice floats in water

11. D(g) = .000748 g/cm3 as vapor


12. concentrationHf = 334 joules/g; Hv = 2260 j/g

13. Csp = 4.18 j/goC (l); 2.06 j/goC (s) ;

2.02 j/goC (g)

14. Universal solvent

Chemical Properties of Water:

1. Stable under standard conditions (STP)

STP= standard temperature (0oC) and pressure (1 atm)


2. React with active metals H concentration2

2 Na + 2 HOH 2NaOH + H2

3. It decomposes to H2 and O2

4. Metal oxide + HOH Bases

BaO + HOH Ba(OH)2

5. Nonmetal Oxide + HOH Acids

SO3 + HOH H2SO4

6. It promotes chemical changes.

Aqueous reactions


Used as a Standard for: concentration

1. Temperature at sea level(thermometer)

2. Pressure (Barometer)

3. Volume (Liter)

4. Mass (Gram)

5. Density (specific gravity)

6. Heat (calorie/joule)


Heavy Water concentration:

D2O (deuterium oxide)

a) 2400 liters HOH 83 ml D2O

b) more dense d= 1.2 g/cm3

c) BP 101.4 oC / MP 3.8 oC

d) used as “tracer” in chem RXNs

chemical and biological


Terms: concentration

1. Water of crystallization: homogeneous particles bounded by surface making definite angles. The slower the crystals form, the more perfect they are.

2. Hydrated crystal: a crystallized substance containing HOH

3. Anhydrate: substance without water


4. concentrationEffervescence: rapid evolution of small gas bubbles

5. Efflorescence: hydrated crystals lose HOH when expose to the air

Ex: Na2CO3.10HOH fast process

CuSO4.5HOH slow process

6. Deliquence: take up water from the air

Ex: NaOH fast / CaCl2 slow

7. Hydroscope: insoluble material take up water vapor from the air

Ex: hair, wool, silk


8. concentrationMiscible: two liquids can dissolve freely in one another in any portion.

Ex: water + isopropanol

9. Immiscible: two liquids are not soluble in each other. Ex: water + oil


10. concentrationEffuse: gas particles pass through a tiny opening

11. Viscosity: the resistance of a liquid to flow. Ex: syrup

12. Lattice: 3-D arrangement of particles of a crystal

13. Unit cell: 3-D pattern of the entire lattice (repeating pattern)



MATH CONCEPTS concentration

Remember the rules

sig figsig figsig fig

sci not sci notsci not

UNITS


Csp = specific heat capacity; energy needed to raise 1.00 g of substance 1.0 oC

metals – low Csp

nonmetals – moderate Csp

compounds – varied Csp

H = m x Csp x T

H: energy in calories or joules m: mass

Csp: heat capacity T: change in temp.


Ex: A 15.00 g sample of HOH is raised from 21 of substance 1.0 oC to 37 oC. How much energy is needed?

H = 15.0 g x 4.18 j/goC x (37-21) oC

= 1003 joules


FIN of substance 1.0


This is what you need for Heavy of substance 1.0

Water


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