Unit 10 gases liquids and solids
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Unit 10 - Gases, Liquids and Solids. General Properties : I. Gases: 1. Expansion 2. Compressible 3. Fluid 4. Low density 5. Diffusion 6. Effusion. 7. Condense to liquid 8. No definite shape 9. No definite volume 10. Change volume with Temperature

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Unit 10 - Gases, Liquids and Solids

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Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Unit 10 - Gases, Liquids and Solids

General Properties:

I. Gases:

1. Expansion

2. Compressible

3. Fluid

4. Low density

5. Diffusion

6. Effusion


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

7. Condense to liquid

8. No definite shape

9. No definite volume

10. Change volume with Temperature

11. Change volume with Pressure

12. Deposition (to solid)

Fluid: Substance that can flow and take shape of container


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

II. Liquids:

1. Definite volume 2. Fluid

3. High density 4. Diffuse

5. Incompressible 6. Dissolve solids

7. Surface tension 8. Boil / evaporate

9. Solidify


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

III. Solids:

1. Definite shape

2. Definite volume

3. Not fluid 4. Melt

5. High density

6. Incompressible

7. Slow diffusion

8. Sublimation (solid to gas)

9. Rigid form


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Diffusion: move from area of high concentration to low concentration


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Kinetic Properties (KMT): (Movement)

I. Gases:

1. Tiny particles

2. Constant straight line motion

3. Elastic collisions

4. Little or no attraction forces

5. Average kinetic energy

KE = ½ mv2


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

II. Liquids:

1. Tiny particles

2. Constant motion (limited)

3. Elastic collisions

4. Some intermolecular attractions

5. Closely fit together


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

III. Solids:

1. Tiny particles

2. Constant vibratory motion

3. Strong intermolecular forces

4. Rarely move position

5. Closely packed (fixed position)


Examples of gases liquids and solids

Examples of Gases, Liquids, and Solids

Gases: elements and compounds

Elements: a) monatomic gases – He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

b) diatomic gases – H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2

Compounds: CO, CO2, NO, NO2, N2O, N2O3, NH3, C2H6, C3H8, SO2, SO3, AsH3 …..


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Liquids: elements and compounds

Elements: Hg, Br

Compounds: HOH, C3H2OH, C3H5(OH)3, C2H5OH, C8H18 …


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Solids: elements and compounds

Elements: most metals (Except Hg)

nonmetals P, S, I, C

Compounds: NaCl, NaHCO3, CuSO4,

MgSO4, AlNa(SO4)2,

C6H12O6, C12H22O11…


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Types of Solids

1) Crystalline: crystal lattice (3-D)

Shapes: unit cells – cubic, body center or face center

Basic crystal systems:

a) isomeric cubicd) orthorhombic

b) tetragonale) monoclinic

c) trigonalf) triclinic

g) hexagonal


Types of crystals

Types of Crystals

  • Ionic – Hard, Brittle, High melting pt.

    examples: NaCl, CuSO4, AgNO3

  • Covalent – Soft, Low melting pt.

    examples: NH3, HOH, CH4

  • Network - hardness vary, High MP

    examples: diamond, graphite, quartz

  • Metallic – MP range, hardness range

    examples: Cu, Fe, Al,…


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Forming Crystals: evaporation or from magma SLOW cooling: large perfect crystal

Defect:flaws (mistake in crystals)

a) foreign atom /ion (changes color )

b) internal misalignment (fuzzy)

c) dislocation - edge - screwed

Edge dislocation: extra layer of atoms extends part of the way into a crystal

Screwed dislocation: unequal growth while the crystal form


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

2) Microcrystalline

Fullerines / Buckyballs

contain carbon (graphite)16–128atoms

sulfur 4 – 8 atoms

phosphorus 30 +/- atoms

Properties: strong, durable, hollow, fluffy

shapes are spheres or tubes

network bonding

Examples: tennis racket frames

golf club shafts

airplanes frame / outer covering


Types of solids

Types of Solids:

3) Amorphous: is also called meta-stable liquids or super -cooled liquids

Properties:-melting pt range

-weak intermolecular forces

-temperature sensitive

-random molecular arrangement

Examples: Glass, Rubber, Plastics, Waxes


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Phases


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Below 0oC


Phase changes

Phase Changes

I. Chart-

G

Evaporate/

Condense

boil

Deposition

L

Sublimation

Solidify

Melt

S


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

II. Graph-

release energy

T

E

M

P

G

condense

boil

L

solidify

add energy

melt

S

E N E R G Y


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

III. Diagram-

4

  • Melting Pt

  • Boiling Pt

  • Triple pt

  • 4.Critical pt

P

S

L

1

2

1 atm

G

3

Temp


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Terms

Melting: solid to liquid (add heat)

Evaporation: liquid to gas without boiling

Boiling: change of liquid to bubbles of vapor that appear throughout the liquid

Condensation: gas to liquid (release heat)

Solidification/Freezing: liquids to solids

Sublimation: solid to gas without becoming a liquid Ex: I2, CO2, paradichlorobenzene

Deposition: gas to solid without passing liq.


Get your thinking caps on this will be fun

Get your thinking caps on this will be FUN!!!!!!


Holy moley

Holy Moley!!!!!


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Le Chatelier & Stress

I’ll start will an easy concept!


Equilibrium le chatelier stress

Equilibrium (Le Chatelier & Stress)

Open System:

Evaporation

Condensation

cool

Room Temp


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Closed System:

Dynamic Equilibrium:

evaporation = condensation

at one specific temperature

Equilibrium: Two Opposing changes occur at equal rate


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Boiling Point

Boil at same temperature until all liquid has vaporized

Vapor pressure=atmospheric pressure

Boiling Point changes with

Pressure and / or Altitude changes :

Increase pressure, BP (pressure cooker)

Decrease pressure, BP (high Mt range)


Boiling and elevation

BOILING and ELEVATION

  • DEATH VALLEY CA100.3C

  • HAZLET NJ100.0C

  • BOULDER CO94.0C

  • LEADVILLE CO 89.0C

  • MT WHITNEY CA85.0C

  • MT McKINLEY CA79.0C

  • MT EVEREST TIBET70.0C


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

StressHeat or Cool:

HEAT

COOL

Explosion

Implode

Equilibrium will shift to ease stress


Water

Water

Ocean (saltwater), river, lakes and glaciers (freshwater), cover about 75% of earth’s surface. Living things are 70% - 90% HOH.

Physical Properties of Water:

1. Ice(s), Water(l), Vapor(g)

2. Angular moleculeO

1050HH


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

3.Colorless, transparent, odorless, tasteless4. Intermolecular forces (Hydrogen bond)

5. Highly polar

6. Rigid structure as solid “hex” shape

7. Most dense 4oC

8. FP 0oC / BP 100oC at STP

9. D(l) = 1.00 g/cm3

10. D(s) = .917 g/cm3 Ice floats in water

11. D(g) = .000748 g/cm3 as vapor


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

12. Hf = 334 joules/g; Hv = 2260 j/g

13. Csp = 4.18 j/goC (l); 2.06 j/goC (s) ;

2.02 j/goC (g)

14. Universal solvent

Chemical Properties of Water:

1. Stable under standard conditions (STP)

STP= standard temperature (0oC) and pressure (1 atm)


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

2. React with active metals H2

2 Na + 2 HOH 2NaOH + H2

3. It decomposes to H2 and O2

4. Metal oxide + HOH Bases

BaO + HOH Ba(OH)2

5. Nonmetal Oxide + HOH Acids

SO3 + HOH H2SO4

6. It promotes chemical changes.

Aqueous reactions


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Used as a Standard for:

1. Temperature at sea level(thermometer)

2. Pressure (Barometer)

3. Volume (Liter)

4. Mass (Gram)

5. Density (specific gravity)

6. Heat (calorie/joule)


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Heavy Water:

D2O (deuterium oxide)

a) 2400 liters HOH 83 ml D2O

b) more dense d= 1.2 g/cm3

c) BP 101.4 oC / MP 3.8 oC

d) used as “tracer” in chem RXNs

chemical and biological


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Terms:

1. Water of crystallization: homogeneous particles bounded by surface making definite angles. The slower the crystals form, the more perfect they are.

2. Hydrated crystal: a crystallized substance containing HOH

3. Anhydrate: substance without water


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

4. Effervescence: rapid evolution of small gas bubbles

5. Efflorescence: hydrated crystals lose HOH when expose to the air

Ex: Na2CO3.10HOH fast process

CuSO4.5HOH slow process

6. Deliquence: take up water from the air

Ex: NaOH fast / CaCl2 slow

7. Hydroscope: insoluble material take up water vapor from the air

Ex: hair, wool, silk


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

8. Miscible: two liquids can dissolve freely in one another in any portion.

Ex: water + isopropanol

9. Immiscible: two liquids are not soluble in each other. Ex: water + oil


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

10. Effuse: gas particles pass through a tiny opening

11. Viscosity: the resistance of a liquid to flow. Ex: syrup

12. Lattice: 3-D arrangement of particles of a crystal

13. Unit cell: 3-D pattern of the entire lattice (repeating pattern)


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Holy Moley Math!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

MATH CONCEPTS

Remember the rules

sig figsig figsig fig

sci not sci notsci not

UNITS


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Csp = specific heat capacity; energy needed to raise 1.00 g of substance 1.0 oC

metals – low Csp

nonmetals – moderate Csp

compounds – varied Csp

H = m x Csp x T

H: energy in calories or joules m: mass

Csp: heat capacity T: change in temp.


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

Ex: A 15.00 g sample of HOH is raised from 21oC to 37 oC. How much energy is needed?

H = 15.0 g x 4.18 j/goC x (37-21) oC

= 1003 joules


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

FIN


Unit 10 gases liquids and solids

This is what you need for Heavy

Water


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