The global environment
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The Global Environment. Chapter 1. Geography. What is it?. Geography. The study of where: People Places Things ARE LOCATED AND how they relate to each other. Ancient Egypt. Egyptian Priests Studied the land Why? Land uses What the land could produce

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The Global Environment

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The global environment

The Global Environment

Chapter 1



  • What is it?



  • The study of where:

    • People

    • Places

    • Things


        • AND how they relate to each other.

Ancient egypt

Ancient Egypt

  • Egyptian Priests

    • Studied the land

      • Why?

        • Land uses

        • What the land could produce

        • Base a tax system off of the land – supported building their temples



  • First to create maps of Europe, Africa, and Asia.

5 themes of geography

5 Themes of Geography

  • Location

  • Place

  • Interaction between people and environment

  • Movement

  • Region



  • Where is Penncrest High School?

  • On a sheet of loose leaf try to explain to someone where is the location of Penncrest High School

  • Turn to a neighbor and see how much your explanation is helpful.

  • Rate your partner’s explanation: 10 being very helpful, 1 being not helpful at all, and 5 being probably helpful.

Relative location

Relative Location

  • Did we:

    • Describe PHS in terms of another location?

    • How else did we describe it?

    • How do we determine its EXACT or ABSOLUTE location?

Absolute location


  • Use grid of numbered lines of latitude and longitude.

  • Penncrest is located at:

    • 39 degrees, 30” N

    • 75 degrees, 66” W

Latitude longitude

Latitude & Longitude

  • Latitude

    • Measures distance north and south of the Equator.

  • Longitude

    • Measures distances east and west of the Prime Meridian



  • Divides the Earth into two halves (Northern and Southern Hemisphere.

  • Line of latitude

Prime meridian

Prime Meridian

  • Divides World into Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

  • Greenwich, England

International dateline

International Dateline

  • Opposite of

    Prime Meridian

Place ii


  • Described by physical and human characteristics

Place physical

PLACE - physical

  • Landforms

  • Climate

  • Soil

  • Animal Life

Place human characteristics

PLACE – Human Characteristics

  • Way of life

    • Transportation

    • Religion

    • Languages

Think about our place

Think about our PLACE

On a sheet of loose leaf/ note book paper:

Describe Media as a place.

Consider the following:

  • Stores

  • Landforms

  • Religions

  • Animal Life

  • Weather

  • Transportation

Interaction between people environment

Interaction Between People & Environment

  • How do we interact with our environment?

Hidden cost

Hidden Cost

  • How has interactions with environment created “hidden costs?”

    • Farming

    • Transportation

People adapt

People adapt

  • How do people adapt to different environments?

  • Desert

  • Tropical

  • Arctic

  • Earthquake Prone

  • Beach

  • Mountain

Movement iii


  • Movement of

    • People

    • Places

    • Goods

      • How did people get to America (early settlers/natives)

      • Early people moved primarily for?

      • Alaskan land bridge



  • Exports – What is it?

  • Imports – What is it?

  • Copper/ Farm products/ Coffee Beans/ Oil

Ideas spread

Ideas Spread

  • Religion

  • Technology

  • Television



  • Global Interdependence

    • Dependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world.

    • What is something we are dependant on?

Key terms


  • Geography


  • Latitude

  • Longitude

  • Export

  • Import

  • Interdependence

How am i going to remember these five themes

HOW am I going to remember these FIVE themes?


  • Place

  • Interaction between people and Environment

  • Location

  • Movement

  • Region

Understanding the physical world

Understanding the Physical World

Regions v


  • Identified by:

    • Physical characteristics

    • Economic

    • Political

    • Cultural

      • PEPC

The global environment


  • Book

    • Athenians fighting a war against Persia

    • Athenians want aid from Sparta

      • Athens supplies Sparta with a map hoping for an alliance.

    • Sparta assesses that Athens is a greater threat because of the map

Tools of geographers

Tools of Geographers

  • Geographers use globes and maps.

  • Why is a globe more accurate than a map.

What is a drawback of using a globe

What is a drawback of using a globe?

Map projection

Map Projection

  • Show a curved earth on a flat surface.

  • Accuracy varies depending on type of map.

Mercator projection

Mercator Projection

  • Gerardus Mercator - 1569

    • Sailors needed a map that showed direction accurately (N/S/E/W)

Mercator projection1

Mercator Projection

Mercator projection2

Mercator Projection

  • Accurate view of land areas NEAR EQUATOR

  • Direction (N/S/E/W)

  • North and South Poles

    • Land becomes distorted

    • What is the problem with using a Mercator Projection?

Interrupted projection

Interrupted Projection

  • Shoe correct sizes and shapes of landmasses

  • Cut-out oceans

  • Impossible to:

    • accurately measure distance

    • plot a course across an ocean

Interrupted projection1

Interrupted Projection

Peters projection

Peters Projection

  • Shows correct areas of landmasses and oceans.

  • Directions are accurate

  • Distorts shapes of continents

    • Notice how Africa appears longer and thinner.

Peters projection1

Peters Projection

Robinson projection

Robinson Projection

  • Shows correct sizes and shapes of most landmasses

  • Fairly accurate view of sizes of the oceans

  • Fairly accurate view of distance over landmasses

  • Distortions along the edge of the map

Robinson projection1

Robinson Projection



  • Positives and Negatives

    • Mercator

    • Interrupted

    • Peters

    • Robinson

      • Which do you think is the best?

Special purpose maps

Special Purpose Maps

  • Political Map

    • Shows borders that divide nations

Physical map

Physical Map

  • Shows physical features (lakes/mountains)



  • Physical features of a place or region

Population map

Population Map

Climate map

Climate Map

Vegetation map

Vegetation Map

Natural resources map

Natural Resources Map



  • A Mapmaker



  • Mountain

  • What makes a mountain?

  • Hills

  • Plains

    • Low elevation, flat.

  • Coastal Plains

    • Plains that border oceans

  • Plateaus

    • Large area of high, flat or gently rolling land.

    • Mexico City



  • Bay

    • Part of a body of water that is partly enclosed by land

  • Cape

    • Narrow point of land that extends into a body of water

  • Delta

    • Area formed by soil deposited at the mouth of a river

  • Divide

    • Ridge that separates rivers that flow in one direction from those that flow in the opposite direction

  • Hill

    • Area of raised land that is lower and more rounded than a mountain



  • Isthmus

    • Narrow strip of land joining two large land areas or joining a peninsula to a mainland

  • Lake

    • Body of water surrounded by land

  • Mountain

    • High, steep, rugged terrain that is at least 2,000 ft. above sea level

  • Mouth of a river

    • Where a river empties into a larger body of water

  • Peninsula

    • Piece of land that is surrounded on 3 sides by water

  • Plain

    • Broad area of fairly level land – usually close to sea level



  • Plateau

    • Large area of high land that is flat or gently rolling

  • River Valley

    • Land drained or watered by a river

  • Source of a River

    • Place where a river originates

  • Strait

    • Narrow channel that connects two larger bodies of water

  • Tributary

    • Stream or small river that flows into a larger stream or river

The global environment


Quiz friday 9 12 global studies




    • Be able to provide an actual example (name) of the following:

      • Mouth of a River

      • Peninsula

      • Mountain Range

      • Bay

      • Harbor

      • Cape

      • Gulf

      • Strait

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