Process costing
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 26

PROCESS COSTING PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 51 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

PROCESS COSTING. CONCEPT. Process Costing Used by manufacturers who mass produce large quantities of identical units in a continuous flow. Process costing involves averaging costs for a particular period in order to obtain departmental unit costs.

Download Presentation

PROCESS COSTING

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Process costing

PROCESS COSTING


Concept

CONCEPT

Process Costing

Used by manufacturers who mass produce large quantities of identical units in a continuous flow.

Process costing involves averaging costs for a particular period in order to obtain departmental unit costs.


Process costing

Job Order and Process Cost Systems Compared

Job Cost

Sheets

Dept. A and Dept. B

Dept. B

Job Order Cost System

Direct materials

Direct labor

Finished goods

Factory overhead

Process Cost System

Direct

materials

Finished goods

Dept. A

Direct

labor

Factory

overhead

Direct

labor

Factory

overhead


Charactoristics of process costing

CHARACTORISTICS OF PROCESS COSTING

  • The cost of production report is used to collect , summarize and compute total and unit costs.

  • Total costs charged to the department is divided by total computed production of the department in order to determine a unit cost for a specific period.

  • Costs of completed units of a department are transferred to the next processing department in order to arrive at the total costs of the finished products during a period.


The procedures of process costing

THE PROCEDURES OF PROCESS COSTING

  • Accumulate materials , labor and factory overheads costs by departments

  • Determine a unit cost for each department

  • Transfer costs from one department to the next and to finished goods

  • Assign costs to the inventory of work still in process .


Product flow

PRODUCT FLOW

  • Three product flow formats associated with process costing

  • Sequential product flow

  • Parallel product flow

  • Selective product flow


Sequential product flow

SEQUENTIAL PRODUCT FLOW

  • In a sequential product flow, each item manufactured goes through the same set of operations .e.g

  • Materials are placed into production in the Blending department and labor and FOH are added. When the work is finished in the Blending department , it moves to the Testing department. The same procedure is applied again and after the completion of work , it moves to the Terminal department. After this department the product is completed and becomes the part of the finished goods.


Parallel product flow

PARALLEL PRODUCT FLOW

  • In a parallel product flow, certain portions of the work are done simultaneously and then brought together in a final process or processes for completion and transfer to the finished goods.


Selective product flow

SELECTIVE PRODUCT FLOW

  • The product moves to different departments within the plant, depending upon the desired final product. E.g meat processing


Material costs

MATERIAL COSTS

An entry to record direct materials used in a period is as follows:


Labor costs

LABOR COSTS

  • Summary labor charges are made to departments through an entry which distributes the direct material payroll:


Factory overhead costs

FACTORY OVERHEAD COSTS

  • Predetermined overhead rates for producing departments should be used if:

  • Production is not stable

  • Factory overhead , especially fixed overhead , is a significant cost.

  • The use of predetermined rates is highly recommended for improving cost control and facilitating cost analysis


Actual factory overhead

ACTUAL FACTORY OVERHEAD


Applied factory overhead

APPLIED FACTORY OVERHEAD


Cost of production report

COST OF PRODUCTION REPORT

  • A departmental cost of production report shows all costs chargeable to a department.

  • It is the most conveniant vehicle for presenting and disposing of costs accumulated during the month.


Cost of production report1

COST OF PRODUCTION REPORT

  • A cost of production report shows:

  • Total and unit costs tranferred to it from a preceding department

  • Materials, labor, and factory overheads added by the department

  • Unit costs added by the department.

  • Total and unit costs accumulated to the end of the operations in the department

  • The cost of work in process inventories

  • Cost tranferred to the succeeding department or to a finished goods store room


Cost of production report2

COST OF PRODUCTION REPORT

  • Information in the cost of production report is adjusted for equivalent production.

  • To condense the illustrated cost of production report , only total materials , labor and factory overhead charged to the departments are considered.


Process costing

The Clonex Corporation

Blending Department

Cost of Production Report

For the month of January , 2010

Quantity Scehdule

Units started in process50,000

Units tranferred to the next department45,000

Units still in process(all materials-1/2 labor and factory overhead)4,000

Units lost in process 1,00050,000

Cost charged to the department

Cost added by department: Total Cost Unit cost

Materials24,500 0.50

Labor29,140 0.62

Factory Overhead28,2000.60

Total cost to be accounted for81,8401.72

Cost accounted for as follows

Tranferred to the next department (45,000*1.72)77,400

Work in process-ending inventory:

Materials (4,000*0.50)2,000

Labor (4,000*1/2*0.62)1,240

Factory overhead (4,000*1/2*0.60)1,2004,440

Total cost to be accounted for81,840


Process costing

The Clonex Corporation

Testing Department

Cost of Production Report

For the month of January , 2009

  • Quantity Scehdule

  • Units recieved from the preceding department45,000

  • Units tranferred to the next department40,000

  • Units still in process(1/3 labor and factory overhead)3,000

  • Units lost in process2,00045,000

  • Cost charged to the department

  • Cosr from the preceding department:Total Cost Unit cost

  • Tranferred in during the month (45,000 units)77,4001.72

  • Cosrt added by the department:

  • Labor37,3100.91

  • Factory Overhead32,8000.80

  • Total cost added70,1101.71

  • Adjustment for lost units0.08

  • 147,4103.51

  • Cost accounted for as follows

  • Tranferred to the next department (40,000*3.51)140,400

  • Work in process-ending inventory:

  • Adjusted cost from preceding department(3,000*(1.72+0.08)5,400

  • Labor (3,000*1/3*0.91)910

  • Factory overhead (3,000*1/3*0.80)8007,110

  • Total cost to be accounted for147,510


Adjustment for lost units

ADJUSTMENT FOR LOST UNITS

  • Method 1:

  • 77,400 = 1.80-1.72=0.08 per unit

  • 43,000

  • Method 2:

  • 2,000 units*1.72= 3,440

  • 3,440/43,000=0.08 per unit

  • The greater the number of units lost , the greater will be the unit costs.


Process costing

  • The Clonex Corporation

  • Testing Department

  • Cost of Production Report

  • For the month of January , 2009

  • Quantity Schedule

  • Units received from the preceding department45,000

  • Units transferred to the next department40,000

  • Units still in process(1/3 labor and factory overhead)3,000

  • Units lost in process2,00045,000

  • Cost charged to the department

  • Cost from the preceding department:Total Cost Unit cost

  • Transferred in during the month (45000 units)77,400 1.72

  • Cost added by the department:

  • Labor37,3100.87

  • Factory Overhead32,8000.76

  • Total cost added70,1101.63

  • 147,5103.35

  • Cost accounted for as follows

  • Transferred to the next department (40,000*(3.35+0.1675) 140,720

  • Work in process-ending inventory:

  • cost from preceding department(3,000*1.72)5,160

  • Labor (3,000*1/3*0.67)870

  • Factory overhead (3,000*1/3*0.76)7606,790

  • Total cost to be accounted for 147,510


Terminal department

TERMINAL DEPARTMENT

  • Entry:

  • Work in process-Terminal Department xx

  • Work in process-Testing Department xx


Unit costs

UNIT COSTS

  • Labor:

  • $37,310/43,000=$0.87 per unit

  • Factory overhead:

  • $32,800/43,000=$0.76 per unit

  • Lost unit cost:

  • 3.35*2000 units=$6,700;

  • $6,700/40,000= $0.1675 per unit

  • Total cost to be transferred: 3.35+0.1675=$3.5175


Process costing

  • The Clonex Corporation

  • Terminal Department

  • Cost of Production Report

  • For the month of January , 2009

  • Quantity Schedule

  • Units received from the preceding department40,000

  • Units transferred to finished goods storeroom35,000

  • Units still in process(1/4 labor and factory overhead)4,000

  • Units lost in process1,00040,000

  • Cost charged to the department

  • Cost from the preceding department:Total Cost Unit cost

  • Transferred in during the month (40,000 units)140,4003.51

  • Cost added by the department:

  • Labor32,4000.90

  • Factory Overhead19,8000.55

  • Total cost added52,2001.45

  • Adjustment for lost units0.09

  • 192,8005.05

  • Cost accounted for as follows

  • Transferred to the next department (35,000*5.05) 176,750

  • Work in process-ending inventory:

  • Adjusted cost from preceding department(4,000*(3.51+0.09)14,400

  • Labor (4,000*1/4*0.90)900

  • Factory overhead (4,000*1/4*0.55)55015,850

  • Total cost to be accounted for 192,800


Lost units

LOST UNITS

  • Method 1:

  • $140,400/39,000= $3.60

  • 3.60-3.51= $0.09 per unit

  • Method 2:

  • 1000 units * $3.51= $3,510

  • $3,510/39,000= $0.09 per unit


Process costing

  • An entry to transfer finished units to the finished goods store room:

  • Finished goodsxxx

  • Work in process-Terminal Departmentxxx


  • Login