Fluids 101
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Fluids 101. Chapter 10. Fluids. Any material that flows and offers little resistance to changing its shape. Liquids Gases Plasma?. Density. An important property of matter is density. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. The symbol is . Density of water. 1.0 g/ml

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Fluids 101

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Fluids 101

Fluids 101

Chapter 10


Fluids

Fluids

  • Any material that flows and offers little resistance to changing its shape.

    • Liquids

    • Gases

    • Plasma?


Density

Density

  • An important property of matter is density.

  • Density is defined as mass per unit volume.

  • The symbol is .


Density of water

Density of water

  • 1.0 g/ml

  • 1.0 g/cm3

  • 1,000 kg/m3


Pressure

Pressure

  • Force per unit area.


Pressure1

Pressure

  • Measured in atm or Pascals (Pa)


Pressure2

Pressure

  • Standard atmospheric pressure= force per 1 m2 of air at sea level.

    1.01x105 Pa or 101 kPa


Pressure under water

Pressure Under Water

  • The pressure due to fresh water increases about 1 atm or 100 kPa for every 10 m.


Liquid pressure

Liquid Pressure

  • Pressure of a liquid at rest depends only on density and depth.

Pressure = density x depth


Water pressure

Water pressure

  • Water pressure is greater in the deeper lake.


Pascal s principle

Pascal’s Principle

  • The force exerted by a fluid on the walls of its container always acts perpendicular to the walls.


Pascal s principle1

Pascal’s Principle

When you are under water the water’s pressure pushes in on you from all sides. The force is perpendicular to your body.


Pascal s principle2

Pascal’s Principle


Pascal vases

Pascal Vases

  • The pressure of a liquid is the same at any depth regardless of the shape of its container.


Pressure in a column

Pressure in a Column

  • The pressure in a fluid column can be found using this equation:


Pressure in a column1

Pressure in a Column

  • AP test version of the same equation:

- this stands for the initial pressure.


Problem

Problem

  • What is the pressure exerted by water at a depth of 45.0 m?


Solution

Solution

P = (1000 kg/m3)(9.8 m/s2)(45 m)

P = 4.41 x105 Pa or441 kPa


Buoyancy

Buoyancy

  • Buoyancy is an upward force that a fluid exerts on an object that is immersed in it. This is called the buoyant force.


Buoyant forces

Buoyant Forces


Archimedes principle

Archimedes Principle

  • An object is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces


Archimedes principle1

Archimedes’ Principle

  • A brick in water weighs less than when in air. The difference (buoyant force) is equal to the weight of the water displaced.


Apparent weight

Apparent Weight

  • The apparent weight (FA) is the difference between its actual weight and the buoyant force.


Problem1

Problem

  • A cube of steel that measures 5.0 cm on each side is immersed in fresh water. The density of steel is 9.0 x 103 kg/m3. What is the buoyant force acting on the cube?What is the apparent weight of the steel?


Answer pt 1

Answer pt 1

FB = (1000kg/m3)(0.05 m)3(9.8m/s2)

FB = 1.23 N


Answer pt 2

Answer pt.2

a m = ρV

FW = (9.0 x 103 kg/m3)(0.05 m)3(9.8m/s2)

FA = W – FB

FA = 11.03 N – 1.23 N = 9.8 N


Fluids 101

“Bob, do you think I’m sinking? Be honest”


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