Fluids 101
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Fluids 101. Chapter 10. Fluids. Any material that flows and offers little resistance to changing its shape. Liquids Gases Plasma?. Density. An important property of matter is density. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. The symbol is . Density of water. 1.0 g/ml

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Fluids 101

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Fluids 101

Chapter 10


Fluids

  • Any material that flows and offers little resistance to changing its shape.

    • Liquids

    • Gases

    • Plasma?


Density

  • An important property of matter is density.

  • Density is defined as mass per unit volume.

  • The symbol is .


Density of water

  • 1.0 g/ml

  • 1.0 g/cm3

  • 1,000 kg/m3


Pressure

  • Force per unit area.


Pressure

  • Measured in atm or Pascals (Pa)


Pressure

  • Standard atmospheric pressure= force per 1 m2 of air at sea level.

    1.01x105 Pa or 101 kPa


Pressure Under Water

  • The pressure due to fresh water increases about 1 atm or 100 kPa for every 10 m.


Liquid Pressure

  • Pressure of a liquid at rest depends only on density and depth.

Pressure = density x depth


Water pressure

  • Water pressure is greater in the deeper lake.


Pascal’s Principle

  • The force exerted by a fluid on the walls of its container always acts perpendicular to the walls.


Pascal’s Principle

When you are under water the water’s pressure pushes in on you from all sides. The force is perpendicular to your body.


Pascal’s Principle


Pascal Vases

  • The pressure of a liquid is the same at any depth regardless of the shape of its container.


Pressure in a Column

  • The pressure in a fluid column can be found using this equation:


Pressure in a Column

  • AP test version of the same equation:

- this stands for the initial pressure.


Problem

  • What is the pressure exerted by water at a depth of 45.0 m?


Solution

P = (1000 kg/m3)(9.8 m/s2)(45 m)

P = 4.41 x105 Pa or441 kPa


Buoyancy

  • Buoyancy is an upward force that a fluid exerts on an object that is immersed in it. This is called the buoyant force.


Buoyant Forces


Archimedes Principle

  • An object is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces


Archimedes’ Principle

  • A brick in water weighs less than when in air. The difference (buoyant force) is equal to the weight of the water displaced.


Apparent Weight

  • The apparent weight (FA) is the difference between its actual weight and the buoyant force.


Problem

  • A cube of steel that measures 5.0 cm on each side is immersed in fresh water. The density of steel is 9.0 x 103 kg/m3. What is the buoyant force acting on the cube?What is the apparent weight of the steel?


Answer pt 1

FB = (1000kg/m3)(0.05 m)3(9.8m/s2)

FB = 1.23 N


Answer pt.2

a m = ρV

FW = (9.0 x 103 kg/m3)(0.05 m)3(9.8m/s2)

FA = W – FB

FA = 11.03 N – 1.23 N = 9.8 N


“Bob, do you think I’m sinking? Be honest”


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