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The Things I Learned. By: Efren fuertes. The Scientific Method. The Scientific method was the first thing we learned. The first step is observation. It talks about the organization of all testing things. The 2 nd step is research question. It has to be testable.

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The things i learned

The Things I Learned

By: Efren fuertes

The scientific method
The Scientific Method

  • The Scientific method was the first thing we learned.

  • The first step is observation. It talks about the organization of all testing things.

  • The 2nd step is research question. It has to be testable.

  • 3rd step is Collecting variables. There are 3 of them. Independent variable, dependent variable, and constant variable.

  • 4th step is hypothesis. It is an educated guess.

  • 5th step is procedure. It is the steps you used in the experiment.

  • 6th step is analyze data. It shows the graphs you used.

  • 7th step is conclusion. It talks about if your hypothesis is correct or wrong.


  • Matter has mass and takes up space.

  • Ex: wall, shoe, mouse

Physical chemical changes
Physical/Chemical Changes

  • Physical change is the way you change the look of something.

  • Chemical change makes a new substance.

  • Phy: crumpled paper.

  • Che: burning wood.

States of matter
States of Matter

  • The three states of matter is solid, liquid, and gas.

  • Particle arrangement

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas

5 phase changes
5 Phase changes

  • Melting point-ice – water

  • Boiling point-water – steam

  • Freezing point- water- ice

  • Condensation- heat- sweat

  • Sublimation-dry ice- steam

Mixtures elements and compounds
Mixtures Elements and compounds

  • Compounds: when 2 elements make a new element.

  • Mixtures: when 2 substances make a new substance.

  • Element: pure substance.

Homogeneous heterogeneous

  • Homogeneous: can’t see the particles.

  • Heterogeneous: can see the particles.

  • Ex: Kool Aid

  • trail mix

Pe ke

  • Potential energy: stored energy

  • Kinetic energy: energy of movement.

  • Ex: about to kick a ball.

  • Diving for a ball.



  • There are three types of atoms.

  • 1. Protons: +

  • 2.Electrons -

  • 3.Neutrons +-

Periodic table
Periodic table

  • Demister Mendeleev made the periodic table.

  • There are 18 groups and 7 periods.

  • The 4 parts of the periodic table is metals, transitional metals, non-metals, and gases.

  • Ex: gold, silver, copper, and carbon.

The 3 types of heat
The 3 types of heat

  • 1. Conduction: Movement of heat by touch.

  • 2. Convention: heat passes through a liquid.

  • 3. Radiation: heat being pass in the air.

  • Ex: Touching a hot stove.

  • Touching hot water.

  • Heat wave.


  • The rate of motion( how fast)

  • Ex: Speeding up the road.


  • Increase of speed.

  • Ex: The car is accelerating.

Forces and motion
Forces and Motion

  • Motion: anytime an object changes position.

  • Force: anything that would change the movement of an object.

  • Ex: Push a car.

Resistance and gravity
Resistance and Gravity

  • Resistance: slows something down.

  • Gravity: the force that pulls you down to earth.

  • Ex: running on sand.

  • Rain

Balanced and unbalanced
Balanced and Unbalanced

  • Balanced: all the forces acting in one object.

  • Unbalanced: when one force is acting upon an object.

  • Ex: Bal: table

    Unb: see saw

Friction and net forces
Friction and Net forces

  • Friction: when 2 substances rub each other.

  • Net forces: the sum of all forces.

  • Ex: Rubbing your hands.

Newton s 1 st law
Newton’s 1st Law

  • Same thing as Inertia.

  • An object would be at rest unless you put force.

  • Ex: A ball would be in the air until someone catches it.

Newton s 2 nd law
Newton’s 2nd Law

  • The more mass an object has, the more force to move it.

  • Ex: What needs more force, a pebble or a pencil.

Newton s 3 rd law
Newton’s 3rd law

  • For every action there is an equal or opposite amount of force.

  • Ex: Leaning on a wall.


  • How hard it is to stop something.

  • Ex: Stopping a car with your hands.


  • Anytime you move something apply a force and that force moves it.

  • Ex: Pushing a car.


  • Amount of work we could do in a period of time.

  • Ex: Weights


  • A wave is a disturbance of energy that passes through matter that moves one place to another.

  • Ex: Flag

Mechanical waves
Mechanical waves

  • Need a medium to travel.

  • A medium is matter that allows waves pass through it.

  • Ex: Tornado.

2 types of waves
2 Types of waves

  • Longitudinal: Up and down

  • Transverse: Back and forth

  • Ex: Long: Telephone wire.

    Trans: Bell

Electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves

  • Do not need a medium.

  • 7 electromagnetic waves:

  • Radio wave- oldest wave

  • Microwave- ex: cell phones

  • Infrared wave- senses body heat

  • Visible light- anything we could see.

  • Ultra violet rays-ex: sun, tanning beds

  • X-rays – see your bones

  • Gamma rays-identify organs./fastest

Reflection refraction diffraction
Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction

  • Reflection- waves would bounce off objects.

  • Refraction- Wave speed will vary based on the medium it is passing through.

  • Diffraction- When waves go around, through, or between.

  • Ex: pool

    air, water, bottom of sea

    waves going through holes.

Constructive and destructive interference
Constructive and destructive interference

  • Constructive: when 2 similar waves come together and they make a big wave.

  • Destructive: when 2 opposite waves cancel each other.

Sound in different mediums
Sound in different mediums

  • Solid- slower

  • Liquid-quicker

  • Gas- quickest

    Effect of temp on sound

  • Hot: the waves would move really quick, because the particles move fast.

  • Cold: the particles are real heavy and is slower.



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