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Contents. Section 1 —Introduction to Plumbing Section 2—Plumbing Systems Section 3—Plumbing System Design and Installation Section 4—Plumbing Services Section 5—Career Development and Plumbing History. Section 3. Plumbing System Design and Installation. Chapter 19.

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Contents
Contents

  • Section 1—Introduction to Plumbing

  • Section 2—Plumbing Systems

  • Section 3—Plumbing System Design and Installation

  • Section 4—Plumbing Services

  • Section 5—Career Development and Plumbing History


Section 3
Section 3

Plumbing System Design and Installation


Chapter 19
Chapter 19

DWV Pipe and Fitting Installation


Objectives
Objectives

  • Describe proper procedures for locating and installing DWV piping systems.

  • Use the prescribed techniques for working with plastic, copper, galvanized iron, black iron, and cast-iron DWV materials.

  • Compare and use the three methods of measuring pipe length between fittings.

  • Describe or demonstrate methods for testing and inspecting completed DWV systems.


Dwv second rough stage
DWV Second Rough Stage

  • DWV, hot and cold water pipe, and fittings.

  • Bathtubs and shower bases.

  • Maintain 1/4 slope on horizontal runs.

  • Accurate placement so fixtures can be installed.


Measuring pipe
Measuring Pipe

Face-to-Face

  • Add fitting allowances.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Measuring pipe1
Measuring Pipe

Shoulder-to-Shoulder

  • Only DWV fittings have shoulders.

  • No adjustments to measurement.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Measuring pipe2
Measuring Pipe

Center-to-Center

  • Adjustment forlaying length.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Measuring pipe3
Measuring Pipe

Combining Measuring Techniques

  • Face-to-Centerline

    • Add one fitting allowance.

    • Subtract one laying length.

  • Face-to-Shoulder

    • Add one fitting allowance.

  • Shoulder-to-Centerline

    • Subtract one laying length.


Overview of dwv installation
Overview of DWV Installation

Example:

  • House with two bathrooms and a kitchen on the main floor, and a laundry area in the basement.

    • Two stacks through the roof.

    • Horizontal pipes from base of stacks join before the 4 pipe connects to the building sewer.

    • Floor drain connected to kitchen/laundry branch.


Overview of dwv installation1

Main Floor

Basement

Overview of DWV Installation

Installation Schematic Drawing

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation2
Overview of DWV Installation

Horizontal Runs Below Concrete

  • Installing horizontal runs below a concrete floor:

    • String line from base of bathroom stack to building drain.

    • String line from laundry/kitchen stack to join 4 pipe at 45 angle.

    • String line from kitchen/laundry branch to floor drain.

    • Dig shallow trenches along string lines.

      • Slope 1/4 per foot of run.


Overview of dwv installation3
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack

  • Kitchen/Laundry Stack

    • Standpipe shown above concrete floor.

    • P-traps installed with fixtures.

    • Capped stub-outs for P-traps.

    • Stack must offset above the foundation wall and enter wall cavity on the main floor.


Overview of dwv installation4
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Kitchen/Laundry Stack

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation5
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Lower Portion of Kitchen/Laundry Stack

    • Mark top of the concrete floor on the foundation wall.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation6

A = 4 5/8

B = 3 5/8

Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Measurements

    • Measure distances A and B.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation7
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Measurements

    • Calculate slope for 2 6 horizontal pipe (1/4 per ft  2 1/2 = 5/8).

    • Concrete floor will be 4 thick.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation8
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Measurements

    • Calculate height of the centerline of the inlet to P-trap above concrete footing (4 + 4 5/8 = 8 5/8).

    • Calculate the centerline height for the sanitary tee inlet (8 5/8 5/8 = 8).

    • Repeat this process to locate the sanitary tee to the laundry tray.


Overview of dwv installation9
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Stack and Kitchen Sink Drain

    • Offset at top of foundation wall (side view).

    • Height of sanitary tee depends on location of 90 ell in sink drain.

      • Horizontal pipe runs below joist.

      • Fall (slope) 1/4 per foot of run.

Click here to view illustration.


Overview of dwv installation10
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Kitchen Sink Drain

    • Making an offset in the sink drain.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation11
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Kitchen Sink Drain

    • Making an offset in the sink drain.

      • Measure distances “X” and “Y.”

      • Subtract to Obtain “Z.”

      • Calculate theoretical length (1.41  Z).

      • Subtract laying length of 90 and 45 ells to get actual length.

      • Cut pipe and test assembly.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation12
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Kitchen Sink Drain

    • Making an offset in the sink drain.

      • Position 90 ell so horizontal pipe can be installed below floor joist.

      • Measure distances A and B.

      • Calculate fall (B 1/4 per ft).

      • Add “A” and “Fall” to get distance sanitary tee must be below the floor joist.

Click here to view illustration.


Overview of dwv installation13
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Kitchen Sink Drain

    • Making an offset in the sink drain.

      • Hold the sanitary tee to correct distance below the floor joist and mark the vertical 2 pipe.

      • Add fitting allowance and cut the pipe.

      • Put the sanitary tee in position and measure the distance between its inlet and the 90 ell.

      • Add fitting allowances, measure, and cut the horizontal pipe.

Click here to view illustration.


Overview of dwv installation14
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Kitchen Sink Drain

    • Making an offset in the sink drain.

      • Repeat the process to make the offset in the stack.

      • Complete the rough-in of the sink drain and the stack.

      • Check local code to determine if a vent increaser is required.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation15
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Stack (continued)

  • Kitchen Sink Drain

    • Making an offset in the sink drain.

      • Installflashing.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation16
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing Horizontal Drain/Waste Piping

  • Maintain fall for entire length of pipe.

    • Too little fallwaste will not flow.

    • Too much fallsolids left behind.

  • Excavate extra deep and use sand or small gravel fill to provide solid base for pipe.


Overview of dwv installation17
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing Horizontal Drain/Waste Piping (continued)

  • Determine how much the level’s “bubble” must be off-center to check the slope.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation18
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing Horizontal Drain/Waste Piping (continued)

  • Lay a length of pipe in the partially dug trench and check slope with level.

  • Continue digging and checking until the desired slope is achieved.


Overview of dwv installation19
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing Horizontal Drain/Waste Piping (continued)

  • Alignment of Pipes That Join the Wye

    • Using an elbow may be necessary.

    • Trial assembly.

    • Check slope and correct as necessary.

    • Assemble pipe and fittings.

    • Fill under pipe with sand or small gravel.

    • Do not cover pipe until passing inspection.


Overview of dwv installation20
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing Horizontal Drain/Waste Piping (continued)

  • Joints in Drain/Waste Piping

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation21
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack

  • Similar to kitchen and laundry stack.

  • Review schematic.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation22
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Putting Bathtubs in Position

    • Plastic and enameled steel tubs fastened with screws.

    • Cast-iron tubs do not require fasteners.

    • Consider installing drain components before putting tub in final position.

    • One-piece molded plastic units must be installed before bathroom wall framing is completed.


Overview of dwv installation23
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Bathtub Installation

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation24
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Installing Shower Bases

  • Essentially the same as bathtubs.

    • Drain body installation.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation25
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Installing Shower Bases

    • Place closet flanges in position.

      • Blocking equal in thickness to finish floor materials.

      • Check distance from back wall to center of closet flange.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation26
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Double Sanitary Tee Installation

    • Installing double sanitary tee w/side inlets that serves the water closets.

      • Height must provide fall for bathtub drains.

      • Layout on subfloor.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation27
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Double Sanitary Tee Installation

    • Locating side inlet of double sanitary tee.

Click here to view illustration.


Overview of dwv installation28
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Connecting the Closet Flange to the Stack

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Overview of dwv installation29
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Installing 2 1/2ʺ 2ʺ  1 1/4ʺ 1 1/4ʺ double sanitary wye.

    • Vertical drain to lavatories controls location.

    • Work back from lavatory stub-outs.


Overview of dwv installation30
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • 90 Ell and Double Sanitary Wye

    • Locate 2 90 ell.

    • Locate 2 1/2ʺ 2ʺ  1 1/2ʺ 1 1/2ʺ double wye.


Overview of dwv installation31
Overview of DWV Installation

Installing a Bathroom Stack (continued)

  • Installing 90 Ell and Double Sanitary Wye

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Review
Review

List the steps in installing horizontal drain/waste piping below a concrete floor.

  • 1. Locate base of stacks and building sewer exit.

  • 2. Stretch string lines to locate trenches.

  • 3. Dig shallow trenches with proper slope (1/4 per foot of run).

  • 4. Measure and cut pipe.

  • 5. Trial assembly and check slope.

  • 6. Assemble pipe and fittings and place fill under pipe.

  • 7. Backfill after DWV system passes inspection.


Review1
Review

List the steps in installing a bathroom stack.

1. Install bathtub or shower base.

2. Temporarily put closet flange in place.

3. Locate base of stack and extend vertical pipe through opening in the floor.

4. Calculate the slope to bathtub/shower and locate height of the side inlet to the sanitary tee.


Review continued
Review (continued)

5. Position the sanitary tee and cut vertical pipe to length.

6. Trial assemble the pipe and sanitary tee.

7. Measure and cut the pipe to bathtub/shower drain.

8. Install lavatory drain maintaining the correct slope.

9. Install waste pipe and fittings to toilet maintaining correct slope.


Review2
Review

Identify the adjustment(s) necessary for pipe measurements made using each of the following techniques:

  • Center-to-center:

  • Face-to-face:

  • Center-to-face:

  • Shoulder-to-center:

Subtract laying length of two fittings.

Add fitting allowance for two fittings.

Subtract one laying length and add one fitting allowance.

Subtract one laying length.


Installing dwv plastic pipe and fittings
Installing DWV Plastic Pipe and Fittings

Fitting allowances for plastic fittings:

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing dwv plastic pipe and fittings1
Installing DWV Plastic Pipe and Fittings

Laying Lengths for Plastic Fittings

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing dwv plastic pipe and fittings2
Installing DWV Plastic Pipe and Fittings

Cutting Plastic Pipe

  • Plastic pipe cutter

  • Fine toothed saw

  • Miter box

  • Removing burrs

    • Reamer

    • Abrasive paper

(Wheeler Mfg. Division of Rex International USA, Inc.)


Installing dwv plastic pipe and fittings3
Installing DWV Plastic Pipe and Fittings

Joining Plastic Pipe

  • Wipe away mud or dirt.

  • Apply solvent cleaner.

  • Select correct solvent cement.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing dwv plastic pipe and fittings4
Installing DWV Plastic Pipe and Fittings

Joining Plastic Pipe (continued)

  • Apply a light coat of cement to the fitting socket.

  • Apply a heavy coat to the pipe end.

  • Immediately insert the pipe into the fitting and give a 1/4 turn to distribute cement.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing dwv plastic pipe and fittings5
Installing DWV Plastic Pipe and Fittings

Supporting Plastic Pipe

  • Horizontal runs should be supported every 3-4.

  • Set stack bases in concrete.

  • Attach vertical pipe to frame to maintain alignment.


Installing copper pipe and fittings
Installing Copper Pipe and Fittings

Fitting allowances for copper fittings:


Installing copper pipe and fittings1
Installing Copper Pipe and Fittings

Laying Lengths for Copper Fittings


Installing copper pipe and fittings2
Installing Copper Pipe and Fittings

Cutting Copper Pipe and Tubing

  • Tubing Cutter

  • Ream to remove burr.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing copper pipe and fittings3
Installing Copper Pipe and Fittings

Joining Copper Pipe and Fittings

  • Soldering

    • Clean pipe end and inside the fitting.

    • Apply flux to cleaned portion of pipe and fitting.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing copper pipe and fittings4
Installing Copper Pipe and Fittings

Joining Copper Pipe and Fittings (continued)

  • Assemble joint.

  • Heat until lead free solder can be melted by touching pipe.

  • Excess heating will burn away flux.

  • Protect wood, plastic, and other material that might burn or be damaged.


Installing copper pipe and fittings5
Installing Copper Pipe and Fittings

Supporting Copper Pipe

  • Set base of stack in concrete.

  • Horizontal runs should be supported every 4-6.

  • Secure vertical runs to maintain alignment.



Installing galvanized and black iron pipe1
Installing Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe

Cutting and Threading Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe

  • Pipe Cutter

  • Pipe Reamer

(The Ridge Tool Co.)


Installing galvanized and black iron pipe2
Installing Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe

Cutting and Threading Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe (continued)

  • Pipe Die and Die Stock

(The Ridge Tool Co.)


Installing galvanized and black iron pipe3
Installing Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe

Cutting and Threading Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe (continued)

  • Portable Threader

(The Ridge Tool Co.)


Installing galvanized and black iron pipe4
Installing Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe

Cutting and Threading Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe (continued)

  • Bench-Mounted Threading Machine

(The Ridge Tool Co.)


Installing galvanized and black iron pipe5
Installing Galvanized and Black Iron Pipe

Assembling and Supporting Galvanizedand Black Iron Pipe

  • Apply pipe joint sealer or Teflon tape.

  • Turn fitting with pipe wrench.

  • Install metal hangers every 6-8.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing cast iron pipe
Installing Cast-Iron Pipe

Fitting allowances:


Installing cast iron pipe1
Installing Cast-Iron Pipe

Cutting Cast-Iron Pipe

  • Compound Lever Pipe Cutter

  • Hydraulic Pipe Cutter

(The Ridge Tool Co., Wheeler Mfg. Division of Rex International USA, Inc.)


Installing cast iron pipe2
Installing Cast-Iron Pipe

Joining Pipe

  • Gasket and Clamp

    • Used for no-hub cast iron.


Installing cast iron pipe3
Installing Cast-Iron Pipe

Joining Pipe (continued)

  • Compression Gasket

    • Bell and spigot cast-iron pipe.

(E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., The Ridge Tool Co.)


Installing cast iron pipe4
Installing Cast-Iron Pipe

Joining Pipe (continued)

  • Lead andOakum

    • Packing oakum.

    • Compacting lead.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing cast iron pipe5
Installing Cast-Iron Pipe

Joining Pipe (continued)

  • Lead andOakum

    • Pour joints in horizontal pipe using ajoint runner.

(Goodheart-Willcox Publisher)


Installing cast iron pipe6
Installing Cast-Iron Pipe

Supporting Cast-Iron Pipe

  • Set stack base in concrete.

  • Horizontal runs at each joint.

  • Vertical runs:

    • Vertical pipe brackets or straps.

    • Riser clamps at each floor level.


Review3
Review

Identify each of the following tools:

A.B.

Plastic pipe cutter

Copper tube cutter

(Wheeler Mfg. Division of Rex International USA, Inc.)


Review4
Review

Identify each of the following tools:

C.D.

Pipe reamer

Pipe cutter

(The Ridge Tool Co.)


Review5
Review

Identify each of the following tools:

E.F.

Die and die stock

Threading machine

(The Ridge Tool Co.)


Review6
Review

List the steps in joining plastic pipe and fittings.

1. Clean the end of the pipe and inside of the fitting with a rag.

2. Apply solvent cleaner to the end of the pipe and inside the fitting.

3. Apply a light coat of the correct solvent cement to the inside of the fitting.

4. Apply a heavy coat of the correct solvent cement to the outside of the pipe.

5. Immediately push the pipe completely into the fitting and give the assembly a 1/4 turn.


Review7
Review

List the steps in the process of soldering copper pipe and fittings.

1. Clean the inside of the fitting and the outside of the end of the pipe.

2. Apply flux to the cleaned surfaces.

3. Assemble the pipe and fitting.

4. Heat the pipe until lead-free solder melts when touched to the joint.

5. Wipe away excess solder and flux with a damp rag.


Review8
Review

What is the recommended spacing of supports for horizontal runs of each of the following types of pipe?

  • Cast iron:

  • PVC and ABS:

  • Galvanized iron:

  • Copper:

  • At each joint.

  • 3 to 4

  • 6 to 8

  • 4 to 6


Review9
Review

What steps must be completed before the DWV system can be tested?

  • Cap stub-outs and stacks.

  • Plug closet flanges and any other openings.

  • Check all joints.

  • Install supports.



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