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The Big Three: US, France, & Britain. Aims and Motives at the Paris Peace Conference. The United States: Aims.

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the big three us france britain

The Big Three: US, France, & Britain

Aims and Motives at the Paris Peace Conference

the united states aims
The United States: Aims
  • End the outdated form of international relations dominated by secret treaties and alliances—replace it with a “New Diplomacy” –open negotiations, global disarmament, economic cooperation, and a League of Nations to resolve disputes
  • Punish Germany, but not excessively
  • The 14 Points…
the united states 14 aims
The United States: 14 Aims
  • Look at the 14 Points. Answer these questions:
    • 1. What do you think the aims and motives were of Wilson’s Fourteen Points? (2 marks)
    • 2. What do the Fourteen Points tell us about Wilson’s view of the causes of WWI? (2 marks)
comprehension understanding of a source
Comprehension/Understanding of a Source
  • This is one of the four types of questions found in Paper 1.
  • They require you to understand a source and extract TWO or THREE relevant points that relate to the particular question.
comprehension question
Comprehension Question
  • Examiner’s tips:
    • Step 1: Read the source and highlight/underline key points
    • Step 2: Write a concise answer. Just a couple of brief sentences are needed, showing you understand the message of the source—but make sure you make three clear points for a 3-mark question, and two clear points for a 2-mark question. Clearly distinguish between points.
  • Common mistakes:
    • Don’t comment on the wrong source!
    • Don’t just copy the source—Summarize key points in your own words
  • Scoring:
    • You get one point for each relevant/correct piece of info, up to 2 or 3
the united states motives
The United States: Motives
  • Wilson had brought the US into WWI to promote and extend democracy—now he had to see that happen in Europe and its colonies
  • He wanted a just international legal system
  • He was concerned an overly harsh punishment for Germany would cause resentment, retaliation, and ultimately, another war
  • The US economy was booming—and needed foreign markets to sell to.. The economic strength of Europe was tied to the US and required free trade around the world
the united states reactions
The United States: Reactions
  • Some believed Wilson was an idealist and the US entered the war late, so did not understand the European need to punish Germany, keep colonial holdings, or deal with the suffering & material damage of the war
  • The 14 Points did not offer the protection and guarantees many Europeans hoped for
  • British saw it as an attack on imperialism
britain aims motives
Britain: Aims & Motives
  • Prime Minister David Lloyd George is often seen as the middle ground between USA and France—the balance between idealism and revenge
  • Make Germany pay reparations
    • George had just won British elections and the people wanted a harsh punishment for Germany
    • Dominions (former colonies: Australia, Canada, South Africa) wanted a share of the reparations payments
  • Deal with the naval threat of Germany—build up Belgian strength to protect the English Channel
    • German U-boat actions during WWI destroyed British shipping industry
    • Belgium could help control the waters between them without one country controlling it
britain aims motives1
Britain: Aims & Motives
  • The Fontainebleau Memorandum: reconciliation in Europe, fair treatment of Germany so they will accept the treaty
    • Britain had already achieved much of what it desired—German navy was destroyed, colonies in British hands, not a trade rival
  • Keep Germany from going Communist
    • If Germany was humiliated & poor, it would be a breeding ground for communism; a strong Germany would prevent it.
    • Provoking German desire for revenge would lead to another war
britain aims motives2
Britain: Aims & Motives
  • Don’t take away all of Germany’s borderlands
    • Britain wanted to diminish Germany’s power, but didn’t want an over-powerful France, therefore having one country of Europe dominating it
    • Germany had been Britain’s second-largest trading partner, and to return to a pre-war economy would require them back as a partner
france aims motives
France: Aims & Motives
  • Security.
    • From 1870-1914 France was invaded by Germany twice
    • They were determined not to be humiliated again
  • Prevent German recovery: impose reparations
  • Redraw borders to give Alsace-Lorraine back to France & annex the Saarland, left bank of the Rhine—create a natural border/buffer, limit German army & exclude them from LoN
    • Much of the fighting of WWI had been on French soil—drove their bitterness at Germany
france reactions
France: Reactions
  • Document Practice
italy expectations
Italy: Expectations
  • Britain and France had promised Italy some land prizes if they won the war—Treaty of London 1915 (when Italy entered WWI)
  • After the war Italy demanded a little more than the terms of the Treaty of London—they were experiencing unrest at home and thought they could strengthen its position with the public through bigger prizes
  • The Big Three (US, France, Britain) did not care. Italy joined late and was not an equal
japan expectations
Japan: Expectations
  • Japan was supposed to get some German colonies in Asia, as well as British support of Japan taking Manchuria and Inner Mongolia
  • Allies at Paris did not agree to these things after all
  • Japan felt unequal but also racially discriminated against
germany denial
Germany: Denial?
  • Most Germans didn’t feel they’d lost WWI.
  • Germany almost won in early 1918, so the people did not expect to be treated as a defeated nation.
  • Germany appealed first to the US, thinking they’d be more lenient.
  • A series of events in Germany led to their surrender:
    • British naval blockades had caused a severe food shortage in Germany
    • In many cities, soviets were set up to run the country—these were worker’s councils
    • The rebellion’s goal was to end the war, but it looked a lot like the communist takeover of Russia
germany a new government
Germany: A new Government
  • The major political party in Germany was the Social Democrats
  • They disapproved of the rebellion but told Kaiser Wilhelm II that if he didn’t abdicate, they would join the revolution
  • November 9, 1918 riots in Berlin looked like the end of Germany
  • Social Democrats declared a new German republic: The Weimar Republic
  • Wilhelm disappeared in exile to the Netherlands
germany the armistice
Germany: The Armistice
  • German troops would withdraw beyond the Rhine, everything near the river to be occupied or demilitarized
  • Blockade of German coast would continue
  • No war material, submarines, navy, or air force
problems of the weimar republic
Problems of the Weimar Republic
  • People thought the armistice was cowardly
  • The blockade kept them starving
  • National income had dropped by 2/3
  • Many blamed the new government for their difficulties, not the war
  • Communist uprisings occurred in some towns—quickly put down, but a sign of tension
newspaper project
Newspaper Project
  • Your group will be one of the following:
    • United States
    • Germany
    • France
    • Britain
  • You will create the front page of your country’s newspaper for the night before the opening of the Paris Peace Conferences.
  • Include at least one picture, at least one chart/graph, an article stating the reactions to the war, and an article stating the aims/motivations for the peace treaties.
priorities at the ppc
Priorities at the PPC
  • To establish a just and lasting peace
  • To punish Germany
  • To reward the victors
  • To prevent Germany from starting another war
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