The Civil Rights Movement. 1947-1968. Jackie Robinson breaks the color line in major league baseball. April 1947. To Secure These Rights , the report by the President’s Committee on Civil Rights is released. The committee calls for the elimination of segregation. October 29, 1947.
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The Civil Rights Movement
Jackie Robinson breaks the color line in major league baseball.
To Secure These Rights, the report by the President’s Committee on Civil Rights is released. The committee calls for the elimination of segregation.
President Harry S Truman issues an executive order desegregating the armed forces.
In Brown v. Board of Education the Supreme Court declares separate facilities “inherently unequal.”
Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white person; the action triggers a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, led by Martin Luther King, Jr.
MLK, Jr. and a number of southern black clergymen create the Southern Christian Leadership Conference or SCLC.
On the orders of Arkansas governor Orval Faubus, Arkansas National Guardsmen block 9 black students from entering Central High School.
Sit-in campaigns by college students in St. Louis, Chicago, Bloomington, ID, and Nashville help to desegregate eating facilities.
Feb. 1, 1960: Woolworth’s lunch counter
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is formed in Raleigh, NC.
James Meredith files suit claiming racial discrimination after being denied admission to the University of Mississippi (Ole Miss).
President Kennedy signs an executive order barring racial discrimination in federally funded housing.
Birmingham police chief Eugene “Bull” Connor turns police dogs and fire hoses against nonviolent demonstrators.
King composes his Letter from Birmingham City Jail.
“I hope that every American, regardless of where he lives, will stop and examine his conscience about this and other related incidents. This Nation was founded by men of many nations and backgrounds. It was rounded on the principle that all men are created equal, and that the rights of every man are diminished when the rights of one man are threatened.”
Over 250,000 Americans gather at the Lincoln Memorial to urge the passage of civil rights legislation and hear MLK, Jr. deliver his “I have a dream speech.” Malcolm X dismisses the march as “the Farce on Washington.”
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
SNCC and CORE work to register thousands of black voters.
Three civil rights works Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney are murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi.
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibits discrimination in most public accommodations.
MLK, Jr. is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
*assassinated in 1965
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Malcolm X is assassinated while addressing a rally of his followers in NYC. Three black men are ultimately convicted of his murder.
600 marchers outside Selma, Alabama are attacked by state troopers with nightsticks and tear gas.
President Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which outlaws literacy tests and empowers the Justice Department to supervise federal elections in seven southern states.
Rioting in the black ghetto of Watts in Los Angeles leads to 35 deaths, 900 injuries, and over 3,500 arrests.
H. Rap Brown
Stokely Carmichael replaces John Lewis as chairman of SNCC.
SNCC votes to exclude whites from membership
James Meredith is shot by a sniper while on a one-man “march against fear” in Mississippi
The Black Panther Party (BPP) is founded in Oakland California.
Rioting at all black Jackson State College in Mississippi leads to one death and two serious injuries.
Rioting in the black ghetto of Newark, NJ leaves 23 dead and 725 injured.
Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray in Memphis, Tennessee, precipitating riots in more than 100 cities.