Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization
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Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization . Dr. Sergey V. Zykov , Ph.D. State University – Higher School of Economics. The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11) March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA.

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Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Dr. Sergey V. Zykov, Ph.D.

State University –

Higher School of Economics

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization1

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Heterogeneous ESE: a challenge, esp. under the crisis

  • The methodology combines formal models (incl. modified spiral model) and SDK for class-level association-based relationships

  • Problem domain features:

  • heavy data burden - in 2005 total data size of Intel Corp. exceeded 3.2 petabytes (over 120,000 employees in 57 countries)

  • - high object classes complexity

  • - incomplete information on the structure of certain instantiations of the classes;

  • - the set of class attributes and operations can be determined rigorously.

  • Reasons for methodology application (besides crisis):

  • - variety of heterogeneous classes,

  • - importance of association-based inter-class relationships

  • - class inference possible even under certain % of weak-structured class instances

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization2

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Software production crisis and SE era advent

  • 1960-s: the software production crisis begins

  • Problems/Disproportions:

  • - anarchic SDL vs. growing system complexity

  • - no SDL methodologies (except“build-and fix” approach)

  • - the crisis is in our minds, not just in economics

  • - an adequate (R&D-based, adaptive) SDL methodology required!

  • SE – thesci-&-tech discipline to overcome the crisis

  • SE development stages:

  • - 1960-s: “hand-made” art – unique and precious masterpieces

  • - 1970-s: “manufacturing” – mission-critical systems

  • - 1990-s: “machine-tool conveyor” – CASE + team development

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization3

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Comparing SDL and material production

  • 1967 - The NATO Conference on SE

  • Q.: Can SW be constructed/produced as a physical/material object?

  • Analysis:

  • - step-by-step elaboration

  • -maintenance (bridges may cost $0for years, not SW)

  • - “intellectual degeneration” (complex SW platforms change fast)

  • - prototype reliability

  • - “brute force” / “bulletproof “ approach (a bridge twice thicker)

  • - residual faults (NASA flight simulation)

  • Conclusions:

  • - SW production is similar to material one in certain aspects

  • - SW production is entirely different from material one in others

  • A.: NO, Lifecycles are fundamentally different

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization4

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Optimizing lifecycle: the answer to the crisis

  • Every SSDL stage can be optimized (analysis, req.spec., design, implementation, maintenance, etc.)

  • Documenting should be optimized as well

  • Optimization basis = models + methods + tools integration:

  • - discrete metrics (residual faults, KLOC, etc.) + heuristics

  • - practical applicability vs. mathematically “single-best” solution

  • SSDL model basic features:

  • - iterative nature

  • - sequential elaboration

  • - incremental development

  • - risk analysis

  • - modified incremental/spiral model

  • - best applicable for enterprise-level projects (CASE + risks)

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization5

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Heterogeneous ESE: a challenge, esp. under the crisis

  • The methodology combines formal models (incl. modified spiral model) and SDK for class-level association-based relationships

  • Problem domain features:

  • heavy data burden - in 2005 total data size of Intel Corp. exceeded 3.2 petabytes (over 120,000 employees in 57 countries)

  • - high object classes complexity

  • - incomplete information on the structure of certain instantiations of the classes;

  • - the set of class attributes and operations can be determined rigorously.

  • Reasons for methodology application (besides crisis):

  • - variety of heterogeneous classes,

  • - importance of association-based inter-class relationships

  • - class inference possible even under certain % of weak-structured class instances

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization6

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

The methodology vs. ontology-based approaches (OBA):

  • OBA (e.g. Cyc) efficiency is comparable only under a total class-level uncertainty, which is a different problem domain than ECM

  • Thesaurus needed for the OBA to meet the relevance required

  • The methodology uses similar foundations and tools as OBA (UML and XML-based tools, predicate calculus-based CycL, “conceptual model” etc.) for data modelling and integration

  • OBA lack a balanced combination of formal models and industry-level SDKs (incl. visualization) for ECM lifecycle, resulting in low scalability and non-suitability for the major enterprise-level tasks

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization7

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Objective, tasks, theoretical background

Objective:to make a software development methodology, which supports entire lifecycle of the enterprise software in the global computational environment

Tasks:

- formalizing stages and levels of the methodology;

- mathematical modeling;

- creating CASE- and RAD-tools ;

- implementing the methodology (prototype, full-scale).

Background: finite sequence, category, computation (D.Scott), semantic networks.

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization8

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Innovations –the integrate methodology includes :

  • a set of data models for problem domain objects and for computational environment (CM, AMCM);

  • algorithm of the new component integration into the software implemented;

  • personalization procedure for enterprise content access;

  • SDKs: ConceptModeller, Content Management System

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization9

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

EDW problems solved by the methodology

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization10

Enterprise software lifecycle support by the methodology

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA

11


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization11

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Problem domain modeling

Data object modeling:

“classobjectvalue”

Class– collection of data objects of the integrated problem domain;

Object– class instantiation by CMS template

(metadata partial evaluation);

Value– static HTML page generated by CMS (full evaluation).

Benefits:

- evolves from the object-oriented approach;

- develops the existing models ([V.E.Wolfengagen’sCM] et al.)

in relation to global computational environment

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization12

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Modeling classes of data objects

ClassesCof problem domain data objectsare modeled by domains:

C = Iw:[D]  v:D (w(v) ) = {v:D|},where:

1) CandDare in a partial order relation (C ISA D);

2) is a criterion of data object wbelonging to class C

from the viewpoint of a problem domain expert.

Class of “n-dimensional”data objects is modeled by an n-arity relation:

Rn = Iw: [V1,..,Vn] v1:V1 … vn:Vn (w [v1,…,vn])

= {[v1:V1,…,vn:Vn] | }, where:

 – “n-dimensional”criterion of data object wbelonging to classRn

Classisa collection of ordered pairs (vi,Vi), where

vi isits i-th attribute (either of data or of metadata); Vi– attribute type.

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization13

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

From problem domain to computational environment (1)

Under class Cinstantiation with assignment a1and template kof CMS HTML page, evaluation of the template collection Msets into “true” value its element mi, which index (k) equals the template number:

M = (m1,…, mk,…, mN), i=1,…,N mi{0,1};

[M|k] = (m1*,…, mk*,…, mN*), где mi*=1, i=k и mi*=0, ik.

Certain attributes of class metadata v1,…,vnare evaluated according to ticonditions of  template:

[(v1:V1,…,vn:Vn)]ti= ([v1]|(t1),…, [vn]|(tn)) = (v1’:V1’,…,vn’:Vn’),

причем V1’ ISA V1,…, Vn’ ISA Vn.

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization14

a

2

Class

(

UML

)

a

1

Object

(

CMS

)

Photo

-Name : char

-ColorDepth : int

-Resolution : int

-ID : long

-Width : int

-Height : int

-TemplMask : long double

Value

(

portal

)

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

From problem domain to computational environment (2)

The second assignmenta2

instatiates non-evaluated

template elements(v1’,…,vn’)

of CMS HTML-page

by content values(c1,…, cn):

[(v1’:V1’,…,vn’:Vn’)]c = (v1’/c1,…, vn’/cn),

wherec1:С1,…, cn:Сn,

andC1 ISA V1’,…, Cn ISA Vn’.

Сi class template is Ti = (i,(t1,…,tn)),

where(t1,…,tn)is the vector of the evaluated class metadata

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization15

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Formal syntax of the CMS abstract machine

  • Let us collect all the CMS abstract machine language identifiers into Ide domain, commands –into Com domain, and expressions – into Exp domain:

  • Ide ={I | I – identifier};

  • Com ={C | C – command};

  • Exp ={E | E – expression}.

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization16

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Formal semantics of the CMS abstract machine (1)

Order of construction:

  • standard domains (most often used);

  • finitedomains (including explicitly enumerable elements);

  • domain constructors – operations of building new domains out of existing ones;

  • composite domain formalization based on standard domains and domain constructors.

    Domain constructors:

    - functional space: [D1D2];

    - Cartesian product: [D1D2…Dn];

    - sequence: D*;

    - disjunctive sum:[D1+  D2+… +Dn].

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization17

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Formal semantics of the CMS abstract machine (2)

  • State = Memory  Input  Output; Memory = Ide  [Value + {unbound}];

  • Input = Value*;

  • Output = Value*;

  • Value = Type1 + Type2 + …

  • Constant denotate:<variable, value>

  • Identifier denotate:

  • <variable_in_memory, identifier, state>

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization18

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Formal semantics of the CMS abstract machine (3)

Semantic function for expression:

E: Exp  [ State  [[Value  State] + {error}]];

Semantic function for command:

С : Com[State[State+{error}]].

Semantic statement for identifier:

E [I] s = (m, I = unbound) error,  (m, I, s).

Semantic statement for assignment command:

C [I=E] = E [E] * v (m , i, o) . (m [v/I], i, o).

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization19

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Bi-directional software development

in ConceptModeller CASE-toolkit

FORMAL LANGUAGE

FORMAL LANGUAGE

FRAME

NATURAL

FORMAL LANGUAGE

OF FRAME

OF DIAGRAMS

TRANSLATION

OF DIAGRAMS

LANGUAGE

DESCRIPTION

(IBM RATIONAL /

INTO UML DIAGRAMS

(XML / RATIONAL)

(XML)

MS VISIO)

VISUALIZATION

VISUALIZATION

FORMALIZATION

TRANSLATION

Mapping

Business situations

Business situations

Visual frame

function from

UML diagrams

in terms of

in terms of

representation

frames to UML

visualization

UML diagrams

natural language

diagrams

IBM RATIONAL,

C#.NET

C#.NET

C#.NET

ORACLE DEVELOPER,

MS VISUAL STUDIO

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization20

в

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Software Solution Arcitecture

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization21

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

CMS logical structure

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization22

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Structure of the integrated enterprise program system

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization23

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Comparing the software development methodology

to the commercial methodologies available

Mathematical model

Methodology

Integrated methodology

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization24

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Implementation features comparison

Software

Integration with legacy information systems

Integrated ERP information system reports

Multi-language

publication

Smart, template-based design

Complex data object embedding

UML diagrams

WYSIWYG-mapping

Java servlets

.NET web services

ITERA CMS

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization25

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

/person

TCO comparison results

CMS + ConceptModeller

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization26

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

, yrs

ROI comparison results

CMS + ConceptModeller

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization27

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Optimistic scenario

Pessimisticscenario

Implementation terms comparison results

CMS + ConceptModeller

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization28

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Theoretical results:

1) A system of formal models for problem domain and computational environment (rigorous semantics, entire lifecycle support, content management orientation);

2) Algorithm of integrating new components to the enterprise software system (problem-oriented, heterogeneous software architecture support);

3) personalization procedure for accessing enterprise content

(flexible, reliable)

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization29

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Engineering results:

1) CASE- and RAD-toolkits:

a)ConceptModeller (rigorous semantics;compatible toup-to-date CASE-tools, ERPand и legacy systems;re-engineering;XML/BPR/UML standard support);

b) ITERA CMS (rigorous semantics;rapid publishing of complex content;WYSIWYG interface;office products integration).

2) Architecture (environment unification of heterogeneous enterprise applications; role personalization with situation dynamics)

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization30

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Practical value of the results obtained:

1) implementation term-and-cost reduction

(TCO, ROI) as compared to commercially available software by 30% (average);

2) major enterprise software features improvement:

- scalability;

- reliability;

- ergonomics.

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


Lessons from the crisis enterprise software lifecycle optimization31

Lessons from the Crisis: Enterprise Software Lifecycle Optimization

Research results approbation:

Over 30 presentations on international conferences,

4 books and over 50 papers

Research grants: MSR(2002-03), RFBR (1996-2006)

and HSE (2008-11).

ITERA implementation (150 companies, 10,000 employees):

CMS (2002); Internet-portal (2003); Intranet-portal (2004)

Other implementations: ICP(RAS), Sterkh Foundation,

Ashihara Karate Association, Russian Orthodox Church, etc.

Curricula (HSE, MEPhI, MSUFI, INTUIT, LANIT, SoftLine,

TEKAMA, CareerLab) – over 3000 graduates

The 2nd International Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics (IMCIC'11)

March 27–30, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA


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