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History 30 Canadian Studies. Unit One Change. Society. Society- A system where individuals and social organizations performing a variety of roles interrelate with each other according to a set of mutual expectations and in ways controlled by the social and natural environment.

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History 30 canadian studies

History 30Canadian Studies

Unit One



  • Society- A system where individuals and social organizations performing a variety of roles interrelate with each other according to a set of mutual expectations and in ways controlled by the social and natural environment

Examples of aspects of society
Examples of Aspects of Society

  • Role of government

  • System of education

  • Democratic freedoms

  • Role of service groups

  • Behavioural expectations

World view
World View

  • A description of reality providing “natural and believable” knowledge which is generally accepted by members of a cultural group to help them meet their needs, create order and coherence, and provide a basis for predictions. How a specific group thinks “the way things should be”

Criteria for world view
Criteria for World View

  • Spiritual Beliefs- defining the meaning and purpose of existence

  • Moral Beliefs- about peoples right and obligations

  • Social Beliefs- about the organization of individuals into society

  • Intellectual Beliefs- about determining the truth and beauty

  • Economic Beliefs- how Wealth is created and distributed

Social contract
Social Contract

  • An agreement between the members of a group which explicitly defines the rights and obligations of each member. The social contract also defines the rights and duties of the rulers and the ruled.

  • What do we have in Canada which serves as our Social Contract?

  • Has the Social Contract between teachers and students changed in the past 20 years?

Social change
Social Change

  • Societies adjust to patterns of reality in ways that seem reasonable at the time

  • Over time realities change making it necessary for society

  • Society may not choose to respond to change until more change forces society to deal with it

Steps for change
Steps for Change

  • 1. Denial

  • 2. Acknowledgement

  • 3. Acceptance

  • 4. Defence


  • Are rules or standards which are accepted and used to provide a consistent basis for making judgements.

  • What grounds do we use for making judgements?

Dialectical evaluation
Dialectical Evaluation

  • Is the process of

    • Defining relevant viewpoints within the information

    • Testing the viewpoint for factual accuracy

    • Testing the viewpoints for morality

    • Evaluating the factual and moral testing

    • Forming your own conclusion about the issues


  • Legitimacy in making and enforcing decisions is based on people’s belief that ;

    • Decision makers have the necessary authority based on criteria such as tradition, morality, consensus, majority rule, position within a group or status

    • The decisions are being made are legitimate according to the prevailing criteria / values of the society’s worldview

    • All members of society have an obligation to accept and obey legitimate decisions even if they don’t agree with them

Implementing change in a democratic society
Implementing change in a Democratic Society

  • Burden of Proof

    • The assumptions made about who should be required too prove that a position is correct and who should be given the benefit of the doubt

    • How do we do this in our Society?

  • In all decision making there is a measure of uncertainty about the consequences and costs associated with the decisions

3 moral tests
3 Moral Tests

  • New Case Test- How does this set a precedent?

  • Role Exchange – Apply to both parties

  • Universal Consequences

Exploration of north america
Exploration of North America

  • By the 17th century countries such as Russia, Spain, Portugal, France and Britain had all explored Canada

  • Britain and France had the largest impact on Canada

The french foundation
The French Foundation

  • New France had two distinctive forms of government

    • Government under the 100 Chartered Associates (wealthy French Merchants 1627)

    • Royal Government (1663) New France was run a colony of France controlled by the King

The features of the fur trade
The Features of the Fur Trade

  • The explosion in popularity of the beaver pelt spurred on the exploration of North America

  • Early Settlement took place along the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers

  • Settlements were established along the northern St. Lawrence

  • As demand for beaver furs for coats and hats increased during the mid 18th century these areas became trapped out of beaver

  • Inland routes became necessary to help provide enough pelts

  • This was dangerous as many ships were raided or sunk on their way back to France

  • In 1627 the King of France Louis XIV granted a charter to a group known as the 100 Associates

  • It was believed that New France would not succeed unless a monopoly was given to allow less competition and more profit

  • The 100 Associates were in the North America for one reason only-profit from Fur

  • They were not interested in diversifying the economy or promoting agriculture which is what the King wanted

  • In 1608 Samuel de Champlain established a permanent settlement at what is today Quebec City where the monopoly was controlled from

  • French traders would trade manufactured goods with the First Nations in return for beaver pelts

  • The French became allied with the Algonquin and Huron peoples around Lake Ontario

  • The Fur Trade had a huge impact on the First Nations people. They had always been self reliant, living off the land as they needed

Questions men now spent most of their time hunting beaver which they would trade for European goods

  • Why was the expansion of the fur trade important

  • The King of France gave the 100 Associates a Charter in 1627. What responsibilities did these wealthy merchants have? What did the King get in return?

  • How did Charles L’Allemant see the monopoly as a bad thing? List

  • What impact did the Fur Trade have on First Nations people of Eastern Canada?

Phases of the fur trade
Phases of the fur trade men now spent most of their time hunting beaver which they would trade for European goods

  • The French depend on the Huron, Algonquin, and Iroquin nations to act as middlemen to bring the furs to the trading posts

  • The Huron and Iroquois are in competition for these furs and often fought over them

  • The Iroquois became unhappy with the French and begin attacking them instead of trading and eventually ally with the British

  • The English and Dutch are established in what is today New York state

  • These conflicts lead the 100 Associates to lose profits

  • Eventually in 1652 the Iroquois stop the flow of all fur into Quebec and they attack the Huron and kill the French missionaries.

  • The King is unhappy with 100 Associates as they are not making money and the colony is not doing well.

  • He sends in French troops in 1663 and establishes Royal control over the colony

Questions York state

  • Why did Champlain form an alliance with the Huron as opposed to the Iroquois?

  • What is the Royal Governments? Why was it established and was it successful?

  • With the development of peace with the Iroquois & France and the death of the Huron what two problems developed.

French british contact
French/ British Contact York state

  • In 1670 King Charles II granted all the rivers draining into the Hudson Bay to an English Company

  • The French now had competition to the North (English) and the south (Dutch)

  • The French then led a series of raids headed up by Pierre de Iberville against HBC posts from 1686-1697

  • This increased tensions in the New World between the two Old World rivals

  • The start of the 18th century saw a new problem appear for the French. They did not have enough First Nations to serve as middlemen, damaging the efficiency of the Fur Trade.

  • A new group of middlemen emerged the Coureurs de Bois

  • The Coureurs de Bois (Runner of the Woods) were French adventurers who were seen as celebrities in France for their daring, and they were very well compensated for the work they did.

  • This caused problems for France because instead of young men settling New France and becoming farmers they were taking off into the wilderness in search of their fortune.

Exploration of north america1
Exploration of North America France, the French attempted to build new trading posts/forts in the interior bringing them in direct confrontation with the British

  • Europeans were motivated by three main things which led to the exploration and settlement of North America

  • God- The desire to convert people to their religion

  • Gold- the quest to acquire as much wealth as possible through colonization

  • Glory- the desire to bring glory to their country and excitement of the adventure

Development of an empire
Development of an Empire France, the French attempted to build new trading posts/forts in the interior bringing them in direct confrontation with the British

  • By the mid 18th century France controlled much of North America

  • They were aided in their exploration by their proximity of the Great Lakes which connected them to much of Canada

  • Conversely the British were hemmed in along the Eastern Seaboard by the Appalachian Mountains.

  • The fur trade and missionary worked changed the goal from looking for a route to the orient to settling the new world.

The fall of new france
The Fall of New France France, the French attempted to build new trading posts/forts in the interior bringing them in direct confrontation with the British

  • By the 1680’s the British had replaced the Dutch as the powerhouse in the Ohio Valley and southern St. Lawrence

  • From 1680 to 1759 the French and British continued to battle for control of the New World

  • In the 1720’s France started to build the fortress Louisbourg on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island

  • In response to the French fort the British settled Halifax in 1749 and Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal.

  • In 1755 the British who controlled the area of the Maritimes known as Acadia shipped all of the French residents (Acadians) to the 13 colonies

  • In 1756 the Seven Years War began which led the British to invade the Fortress

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkxlTtEWyjU

Plains of abraham
Plains of Abraham British” as they also attacked French settlements at Lake Champlain before turning their sights on Quebec

  • In 1759 the British are victorious at the Plains of Abraham ending 150 years of French rule in Quebec

  • At the conclusion of the Seven Years War in 1763 the Treaty of Paris gives the British control over all French territory in the New World.

  • This is a significant moment in Canadian history


When Wolfe recovers from his illness, the situation is much improved but critical. Montcalm detaches 800 infantry to aid the outnumbered French commander La Corne in Montreal and 3,000 infantry are chasing shadows further and further west of Quebec as a result of aggressive British raids on the coast. Montcalm’s subordinates assure him that the 100 infantry left behind to guard Anse de Foulon are enough to sufficiently delay or even prevent any landing.

Wolfe’s main base is established just east of the Montmorency River; there are also forces posted across the St. Lawrence River at Point Levis and Isle de Orleans. Saunders’ fleet is divided in order to completely blockade the river of French ships and supplies. Montcalm’s main base is established at Beauport; there are also forcesposted all along the north side of the St. Lawrence River to prevent any British landing which could subsequently threaten Quebec by land.

Wolfe recognizes the attack to be unsuccessful and orders a hasty evacuation. The evacuation can not be hampered in any way by Montcalm due to the damp gunpowder. This costly, abortive attack drives Wolfe into bitterness and despair, eventually contributing to incapacitating physical illness.

Wolfe holds an uncharacteristic council of war which his subordinates use to convince him to abandon his various plans for a second attack on Beauport. Wolfe does so and moves his base to Point Levis and Isle de Orleans in preparation for a landing at Anse de Foulon, recently scouted by his subordinates. Montcalm is relieved – thinking Wolfe is withdrawing altogether – but remains alert.

Wolfe has plenty of time to establish his force on the Plains of Abraham west of Quebec. Montcalm however has no time to recall the detachment far west of Quebec and his Beauport forces are moving slowly towards the heights.


(Marquis de Montcalm)

13,000 infantry





Montmorency River

Montmorency River

St. Charles River

St. Charles River

Plains of Abraham



Anse de Foulon


(James Wolfe)

9,000 infantry

(Charles Saunders)

22 ships of the line

Isle de Orleans

Isle de Orleans

Point Levis

Point Levis




Both sides are leaderless at this point although Townshend and Vaudreuil assume loose command of the British and French respectively. Vaudreuil orders the Quebec garrison to hold out until the city is taken by assault or food runs short. Food runs short much more quickly than imagined; as Townshend begins to get the heavy artillery and ships of the line in position, the French surrender Quebec. This occurs just before the French relief force comes within sight of the city.

Wolfe deploys his force in two lines with a small flank guard and reserve. Montcalm deploys his force in two lines with Canadian skirmishing parties on his flanks and no reserve.

Montcalm’s Canadian skirmishers harass Wolfe’s flanks along the forest/cliff lines, forcing the British to lie in prone position for cover. Montcalm resolves to launch a decisive frontal attack and reins in these skirmishers.

The French advance steadily, halting 130 yards from the British to fire a volley before continuing a progressively untidy advance. Wolfe’s orders that no shot be fired until the French are within 40 yards are being strictly followed. When the French do wade into this range, they are struck by a rapid volley which, to them, sounds like a single cannon shot; the French are utterly defeated and stunned.

Wolfe and Montcalm are both mortally wounded as the British pursue the French from the battlefield. Effective rearguard actions by Canadian skirmishers and French regulars prevent the defeat from becoming a disaster. Wolfe’s subordinates also do not care to risk any sort of reverse after already winning the battle so rather than aggressively pursuing the French, they settle in to besiege Quebec.


(James Wolfe)

4,500 regulars




(Marquis de Montcalm)

2,000 regulars

2,500 militia/natives



Royal proclamation
Royal Proclamation and

  • Put forth at the conclusion of the Seven Years War

  • One of the most important documents in the history of Canada

  • Had three main points

  • Boundaries of Quebec would be set along the St. Lawrence River

2. Territories beyond the Appalachian Mountains were not open to settlers or traders until peace was made with the First Nations of the area

3. The colonies in British North America were made into a group of separate, self-contained units: Acadia, Quebec, and the thirteen colonies, each would work on its own.

Government in colonies after the royal proclamation
Government in Colonies open to settlers or traders until peace was made with the First Nations of the areaAfter the Royal Proclamation

  • Governor

    (Has Total Power in Colony, appointed by the crown)

  • Executive Council

    (British Citizens only and appointed by the Governor )

  • Citizens had little say in Gov’t

  • The French had none as they were Catholic

Quebec act
Quebec Act open to settlers or traders until peace was made with the First Nations of the area

  • Governor Sir Guy Carleton was appointed to lead Quebec in 1766

  • His main job was to secure the loyalty of the newly conquered French

  • Many merchants from the 13 colonies were coming to Quebec hoping to receive cheap land, power and influence

  • Initially, Carleton sided with the merchants but eventually came to see that if Quebec was to survive it would need the Canadians

  • He believed that the 13 colonies were on the verge of revolt (They were) and did not want Quebec to join them

  • Canadians were required to make the fur trade work as no one else was tough enough to survive the climate

  • A loyal Canadian population would help if there were any further Anglo/France conflicts in the future.

  • So Carleton lobbied to have legislation passed that would bring the Canadians on their side

Quebec act of 1774
Quebec Act of 1774 (They were) and did not want Quebec to join them

  • The French Catholic Canadians received the following:

    • Recognition of the Catholic Church

    • Minority Representation on the Executive Council

    • French Civil Law code retained

    • Seignerurial System retained

    • Borders of the Province extended south

Gov t under the quebec act
Gov’t (They were) and did not want Quebec to join them under the Quebec Act


Executive Council

(17-23 British Members & a minority of French)


(Had no vote or say in Government)


American revolution
American Revolution (They were) and did not want Quebec to join them

  • The Quebec Act further upsets the 13 colonies because:

    • Merchants are not given full rights in Quebec

    • Establishment of Catholicism in a British Colony

    • Denial of an elected legislature

    • Expanded boundaries of Quebec make western expansion more difficult

  • The British imposed the Naval Navigation Act against merchants to ensure they would pay tax and not simply import goods illegally or trade with the French which was also illegal

  • This act called for smugglers to be tried by the Navy instead of a sympathetic jury

  • The citizens of the 13 colonies were beginning to develop the ideas of personal freedom which were to define the identity of their country

  • Things like the Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Townsend Act further enraged the citizens

  • Events like the “Boston Tea Party” left the population ready for independence

  • War began in 1775 with the skirmishes in Massachusetts

  • The Americans attacked Quebec and Nova Scotia hoping to prevent England from setting up a base to fight the war

  • They drove the British north of Lake Champlain and neared Montreal but were unable to drive the British out

  • July 4th, 1776 they issued the Declaration of Independence which has provided the framework for the governing of the United States ever since

  • The war does not end until 1783 when the British are driven out.

United empire loyalists
United Empire Loyalists Montreal but were unable to drive the British out

  • Not all were hoping to see the colonies split from England

  • Many remained loyal to the King and were forced to suffer for their loyalty

  • Many eventually emigrated to the British colonies to the north for protection and a continuation of the British way of life.

  • They were given land grants upon arriving in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

Constitutional act of 1791 aka the canada act
Constitutional Act of 1791 AKA The Canada Act Eastern Townships

  • The British were beginning to wonder about the wisdom of imperialism.

  • Colonies cost too much money and were causing problems for Britain

  • They learned from the American Revolution that you could not give too much autonomy to the colonies and expect them to remain loyal

Gov t est by canada act
Gov’t languages, cultures and two sets of institutionsest by Canada Act


  • Governor (appointed by British Parliament)

  • Executive Council (appointed by Governor for life)

  • Legislative Council ( appointed by Gov for life)

  • Elected Assembly (all decisions had to be approved by Leg. Council



  • The right to Veto at so many levels led to a somewhat ineffective system of government.

  • To have the right to vote you needed to own land or pay a specific yearly rent

  • Elections were to be held every four years

  • The Elected Assembly were able to impose taxes for local purposes

  • It created a colonial aristocracy and established the power of the church (1/7th of all land grants were given to the church)

Questions ineffective system of government.

  • How were dangerous tendencies to be kept in check by the British Government?

  • What rights did the Loyalists demand within the Canada Act?

  • How did the British Government get out of levying direct taxes on her people in BNA? Why was this different than they had done in the 13 colonies?

  • What did the British government hope to achieve by selling Crown Reserves?

5. Why were the British worried about the French? What did they do to appease them?

  • How did the following groups view the Canada Act?

    • French

    • Loyalists

    • English Merchants in Lower Canada

    • Upper Canadian English

The war of 1812
The War of 1812 they do to appease them?

  • Peace between the US and Britain was short lived.

  • The summer of 1812 saw violence breakout between the US and England as a result of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe

  • The Americans were mad at Britain for imposing a naval blockade in the exportation of goods into France

  • The United States had completed the Louisiana purchase in 1803, which doubled the size of the country and they wanted to settle it

  • They were angry with Britain for supplying arms to the First Nations tribes trying to prevent American expansion into the west, led the US to declare war on the Britain

  • Their goal was to remove British influence on the Western frontier and seize British North America 

  • A group known as the War Hawks lobbied Congress to declare war on Britain

  • They were successful and in June of 1812 the Americans declared war on Britain

  • The War Hawks reasoned that the with such a small population (8 mil vs 500,000) the US would win easily

  • It did not work that way at all. essentially the war was a stalemate

  • The war on BritainNortheastern states did not support the war and basically remained neutral

  • Most of the fighting was in the St.Lawrence/ Great Lakes region

  • The British Army was aided by Canadian Militia

  • If further demonstrated to Britain that it was costly and difficult to protect Canada.

Great migration
Great Migration war on Britain

  • The population of Canada grew quickly after the American Revolution

  • Loyalists were joined with Late Loyalists (1791-1812) to see the population of Upper Canada explode

  • From 1815-1850 thousands of people came from the British Isles

  • They changed the make up of Canada

Social divisions in british north america
Social Divisions in British North America Industrial Revolution and famine

  • The British Government hoped the system of government would keep the people happy.

  • But, problems occurred as the people wanted more representation and control of their own affairs

  • The elite use their power in self serving ways

  • Money was spent to build canals to ship commercial goods, instead of roads which would help all

  • The people and the farmers felt that the government was not listening

  • For 20 years the reformers in the legislative assemblies demanded the right to have elected legislative and executive councils so all levels would be accountable

  • Those in control refused political change as it would limit their power

Questions listening

  • What parts of society did the elite (Family Compact) control in society?

  • What were the names of the elite groups in Upper or Lower Canada ? How were the problems different in each colony?

  • How did each oligarchy use the system of government to preserve their power and economic positions?

  • Who were Joseph Papineau and William Lyon Mackenzie? What political change did each want?

Reform movement in upper canada
Reform Movement in Upper Canada listening

  • In Upper Canada reformers wanted the same powers as the Legislative Assembly had in Britain, equal land grant policy, and improvements in roads and education

  • Anyone who did not agree with the Executive Council were usually thrown out of the elected Assembly

  • The Reformers called the oligarchy the Family Compact

  • A large number of people were Methodists and the Church of England was Protestants

  • Edgerton Ryerson was leader of the Methodists, they elected a majority in the Assembly and began to make problems for the government

  • William Lyon Mackenzie was also a Methodist who always rejected the Family Compact. He was the leader of the Reformers, he owned a printing press and always published newspapers denouncing the Executive Council

  • Mackenzie was very radical. In 1835 he was on an Assembly committee which demanded an elected assembly like the American Senate

  • In 1836 Sir Francis Bond Head became the new Governor. In that election year Head and his buddies threatened people to vote the “right” way.

  • Head won control of the elected assembly and gave economic control to the Merchants which led to an economic depression

Reform movement in lower canada
Reform Movement in Lower Canada the United States, his rebellion failed.

  • Joseph Papineau tried many ways to make the Legislative Assembly more powerful.

  • He would try to limit money given to the Executive Council for local enterprises, this upset the British

  • Papineau was so powerful within the legislative assembly that the governor dissolved it in 1823, which angered the French.

  • British Merchants in Lower Canada complain to London because they are not able to promote their self interest in the Legislative Assembly

  • As a result the British House of Commons begins to take a look at uniting the Lower and Upper Canada into one colony and eliminating the Quebec Act

  • This would make the French a minority and would all but guarantee English domination

  • 1834 they are not able to promote their self interest in the Legislative AssemblyPapineau comes up with 92 resolutions which basically stated that the people were not happy with the oligarchy, they wanted more freedoms for the French and the Legislative Assembly to have more power.

  • The Governor Lord Russell came back with 10 Resolutions but they did not include a limit to the power of the Executive Council

  • As well they tried to bride Papineau with a position on the Executive Council

  • This infuriated they are not able to promote their self interest in the Legislative AssemblyPapineau who started a revolt as a result

  • He had to flee to the USA and the revolt failed

  • The Revolt in Lower Canada was primarily about French vs English.

Questions they are not able to promote their self interest in the Legislative Assembly

  • What were the similarities and differences between the grievances in Upper and Lower Canada?

  • What would have been the likely outcome had Upper and Lower Canada merged in 1823?

Rebellions of 1837 38
Rebellions of 1837 & 38 they are not able to promote their self interest in the Legislative Assembly

Lower Canada

  • In Lower Canada a group led by Papineau called the Patriotes voted to resist British “oppression”

  • They also talked of joining the United States

  • Street fights between the Fils de la Liberte and the English Doric Tories were common

  • The British Government fearing widespread violence imposed Martial Law

Rebellion in upper canada
Rebellion in Upper Canada the

  • News of the unrest in Lower Canada spread to Upper Canada and British troops were sent to Lower Canada to put down the uprising.

  • Mackenzie decided that this was a great time to try and rise up against the British

  • His plan called for his supporters to storm the city hall and arrest Gov. Bond Head and declare their independence

  • The revolt did not go as they had planned as fewer than 800 rebels gathered for the “attack”

  • Mackenzie’s plans ended in humiliation at the Battle of Montgomery’s farm. Mackenzie was forced to flee and left behind his briefcase with all of the plans and names of those involved

  • Mackenzie fled to the USA where he continued to try and incite revolution and eventually was arrested

Rebellions of 1838
Rebellions of 1838 rebels gathered for the “attack”

  • The Rebellions of 1838 showed that discord had not been quieted with the fleeing of Papineau and Mackenzie

  • More small skirmishes occurred with more bloodshed

  • Groups like the Patriot Hunters and les Frères' Chasseurs tried to incite revolution by utilizing guerrilla tactics

  • These raids were largely ineffective and were put down by the British

Impact of the rebellions
Impact of the Rebellions rebels gathered for the “attack”

  • They signalled to the British that there was potentially some very serious discord in British North America

  • The discord was centred largely around the lack of representation in government

  • As a response Lord Durham is sent to Canada and as a result he writes a report which becomes one of the most important moments in Canadian history

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uyWFYFoKIPo&feature=related

The road to confederation 1839 1867
The Road to Confederation 1839-1867 rebels gathered for the “attack”

  • The rebellions of 1837-38 reminded the British of dealings with the 13 colonies

  • They were concerned BNA might be next to try and revolt and become independent

  • Critics in British Parliament called for Reform

  • This led to them sending John Lambton aka. “Radical Jack” aka. Lord Durham to Canada to serve as Governor General of Upper and Lower Canada

Lord durham
Lord Durham rebels gathered for the “attack”

  • Durham arrived in Quebec in May of 1838 with the idea of combing all of the colonies under one elected legislature

  • He discovered that each colony was against this as they feared getting into the problems of the other colonies

  • So Durham abandoned this idea in favour of a union of Upper and Lower Canada

  • A leading reformer from Upper Canada Robert Baldwin proposed a form of responsible government to Durham which would more closely resemble the gov’t of Britain.

  • Durham agreed with the idea of responsible Gov’t except in Lower Canada, where he feared the French majority would block the wishes of the British minority and gov’t

  • This is why he proposed the Union of Upper and Lower Canada.

  • Durham came under fire for dealing leniently with the a form of responsible government to Durham which would more closely resemble the patriotes after the rebellion of 1838 and resigned after five months as governor general

  • Upon his return to Britain he authored the Durham Report which changed the course of Canadian History

The durham report
The Durham Report a form of responsible government to Durham which would more closely resemble the

  • The Durham Report made the following recommendations

  • Limit the power of the Church of England in Canada

  • That Lower Canada and its French majority should be under rule of the English and assimilated into English culture

3. Durham also noted that many in the colonies looked at the United States with envy at their economic wealth and political freedom. If Britain did not grant Canada some of these liberties he believed that the country would revolt violently or be annexed by the USA