The body in health and disease
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2. The Body in Health and Disease. Learning Objectives. Describe approaches used to organize information about the human body. Identify body directions, body cavities, body systems, and medical specialties. Describe various categories of diseases.

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The body in health and disease

2

The Body in Health and Disease


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Describe approaches used to organize information about the human body.

  • Identify body directions, body cavities, body systems, and medical specialties.

  • Describe various categories of diseases.

  • Describe techniques used to perform a physical examination.


Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

  • Describe categories of healthcare professionals and settings in which health care is provided.

  • Give the medical meaning of word parts related to the body, health, and disease.

  • Build medical words about the body, health, and disease from word parts and divide and define words.


Learning objectives2

Learning Objectives

  • Spell and pronounce medical words about the body, health, and disease.

  • Dive deeper into the body, health, and disease by reviewing the activities at the end of this chapter and online at Medical Terminology Interactive.


Multimedia directory

Multimedia Directory

Slide 21Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Video

Slide 50Introduction to Body Systems Animation

Slide 57Hand Hygiene and Gloving Video

Slide 72Physical Examination Video

Slide 90Health Information Management Video 1

Slide 92Health Information Management Video 2

Slide 93Health Information Management Video 3

Slide 94Health Information Management Video 4

Slide 95Health Information Management Video 5


The body in health

The Body in Health

Seven different approaches for studying the body:

Body planes and body directions approach

Body cavities approach

Quadrants and regions approach

Anatomy and physiology approach

Microscopic-to-macroscopic approach

Body systems approach

Medical specialties approach


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-1 Human body in anatomical position


Body planes and body directions approach

Body Planes and Body Directions Approach

When the human body is in anatomical position, it can be studied by dividing it with planes.

A plane is an imaginary flat surface, like a plate of glass.

Three body planes: coronal plane, sagittal plane, and transverse plane.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-3 Coronal and sagittal sutures of the cranium


The body in health and disease

Coronal plane


The body in health and disease

Sagittalplane


The body in health and disease

Transverse plane


Body planes and body directions approach cont d

Body Planes and Body Directions Approach (cont’d)

These body planes divide the body into front and back, right and left, and top and bottom sections.

Body directions represent movement away from or toward those planes.


The coronal plane and body directions

The Coronal Plane and Body Directions

The coronal plane (or frontal plane) is a vertical plane that divides the body into front and back sections.

The coronal plane is named for the coronal suture in the cranium.


The coronal plane and body directions cont d

The Coronal Plane and Body Directions (cont’d)

The front of the body is the anterior or ventral section.

The back of the body is the posterior or dorsal section.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-5 Posteroanterior direction


The coronal plane and body directions cont d1

The Coronal Plane and Body Directions (cont’d)

Lying with the anterior section of the body down is being in the prone position.

Lying with the posterior section of the body down is being in the dorsal or supine position.


The sagittal plane and body directions

The Sagittal Plane and Body Directions

A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sections.

Named for the sagittal suture in the cranium.

If this plane divides the body at the midline into equal right and left sections, then it is a midsagittal plane.


The sagittal plane and body directions cont d

The Sagittal Plane and Body Directions (cont'd)

If this plane divides the body anywhere to the left or right of the midline, it is a parasagittal plane.


The sagittal plane and body directions cont d1

The Sagittal Plane and Body Directions (cont’d)

Moving from the side of the body toward the midline is moving in a medial direction, or medially.

Moving from the midline toward the side of the body is moving in a lateral direction, or laterally.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-6 Sagittal plane


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-7Midsagittal view of the head on an MRI scan

(DR Unique/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)


Mri video

MRI Video

Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of MRI.

There may be a brief delay before the video starts playing.

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The body in health and disease

Figure 2-8 Medial and lateral are directional opposites


The transverse plane and body directions

The Transverse Plane and Body Directions

Horizontal plane that divides the body into top and bottom sections.

The upper half of the body is the superior section, and the lower half is the inferior section.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-9 Transverse plane


The transverse plane and body directions cont d

The Transverse Plane and Body Directions (cont’d)

Moving toward the head is moving in a superior direction, or superiorly.

This is also the cephalad direction.

Moving toward the tailbone is moving in an inferior direction, or inferiorly.

This is also the caudaddirection.


Other body directions and positions

Other Body Directions and Positions

Moving from the body toward the end of a limb (arm or leg) is moving in a distal direction, or distally.

Moving from the end of a limb toward where it is attached to the body is moving in a proximal direction, or proximally.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-10 Superior and inferior parts


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-11 Cephalad and caudad directions


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-12 Distal and proximal directions


Other body directions and positions cont d

Other Body Directions and Positions (cont’d)

Structures on the surface of the body are superficial or external structures.

Structures below the surface and inside the body are deep or internal structures.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-13 External and internal positions


Body cavities approach

Body Cavities Approach

The human body can be studied according to its body cavities and their internal organs.

A cavity is a hollow space that is surrounded by bones or muscles.

The cranial cavity lies within and is protected by the cranium.


Body cavities approach cont d

Body Cavities Approach (cont’d)

The spinal cavity or spinal canal is a continuation of the cranial cavity as it travels down the midline of the back.

The spinal cavity lies within and is protected by the bones (vertebrae) of the spinal column.

The spinal cavity contains the spinal cord, the spinal nerves, and spinal fluid.


Body cavities approach cont d1

Body Cavities Approach (cont’d)

The thoracic cavity lies within the chest and is protected by the breastbone (sternum) anteriorly, the ribs laterally, and the spinal column posteriorly.

The inferior border of the thoracic cavity is the large, muscular diaphragm that functions during respiration.

The thoracic cavity contains the lungs.


Body cavities approach cont d2

Body Cavities Approach (cont’d)

The abdominal cavity lies within the abdomen and is protected by the bones of the spinal column posteriorly.

The pelvic cavity is a continuation of the abdominal cavity and lies within and is protected by the pelvic bones anteriorly and laterally.

These two cavities are often referred to as the abdominopelvic cavity.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-14 Body cavities


Quadrants and regions approach

Quadrants and Regions Approach

The human body can be studied according to its quadrants and regions.

The anterior surface of the abdominopelvic area can be divided into four quadrants or nine regions.


Quadrants and regions approach cont d

Quadrants and Regions Approach (cont’d)

The four quadrants include:

Right upper quadrant (RUQ).

Left upper quadrant (LUQ).

Left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Right lower quadrant (RLQ).


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-15 Quadrants of the abdominopelvic area


Quadrants and regions approach cont d1

Quadrants and Regions Approach (cont’d)

The nine regions include the:

Right and left hypochondriac regions.

Epigastric region.

Right and left lumbar regions.

Umbilical region.

Right and left inguinal or iliac regions.

Hypogastric region.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-16 Regions of the abdominopelvic area


Anatomy and physiology approach

Anatomy and Physiology Approach

Anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body.

Physiology is the study of the function of those structures.


Microscopic to macroscopic approach

Microscopic-to-Macroscopic Approach

Most cells and cellular structures are microscopic in size and can be seen only through a microscope.

Some cells, such as a female ovum, are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.

Cells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organs.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-17 Using a microscope to study the human body

(microscope: Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.; heart muscle: Michael Abbey/Photo Researchers, Inc.


Microscopic to macroscopic approach cont d

Microscopic-to-Macroscopic Approach (cont’d)

Tissues and organs are macroscopic, that is, they can be seen with the naked eye.

Organs combine to form a body system.

The human body contains several different body systems.


Body systems approach

Body Systems Approach

The human body can be studied according to its various organs and how they function together in a body system.

Gastrointestinal (Gl) system

Respiratory system

Cardiovascular (CV) system

Blood

Lymphatic system

Integumentary system


Body systems approach cont d

Body Systems Approach (cont’d)

The human body can be studied according to its various organs and how they function together in a body system.

Skeletal system

Muscular system

Nervous system

Urinary system

Male genital and reproductive system

Female genital and reproductive system


Body systems approach cont d1

Body Systems Approach (cont’d)

The human body can be studied according to its various organs and how they function together in a body system.

Endocrine system

Eyes

Ears, nose, and throat (ENT) system


Medical specialties approach

Medical Specialties Approach

The human body can be studied according to the medical specialties that make up the practice of medicine.

Each medical specialty includes the anatomy, physiology, diseases, diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs for that body system.


Introduction to body systems animation

Introduction to Body Systems Animation

Click on the screenshot to view an animation on the topic of body systems.

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Other medical specialties

Other Medical Specialties

Other medical specialties that are not directly related to a body system include the following:


Other medical specialties cont d

Other Medical Specialties (cont’d)


The body in disease

The Body in Disease

Preventive medicine is the healthcare specialty that focuses on keeping a person healthy and preventing disease.

Much of medical language deals with diseases and how they are diagnosed and treated.

Disease is any change in the normal structure or function of the body.


The body in disease cont d

The Body in Disease (cont’d)

The etiology is the cause or origin of a disease.

In most cases, the cause of a disease is known or can be discovered through medical testing. In some cases, the exact cause of a disease is never completely understood.


Disease categories

Disease Categories

Congenital

Degenerative

Environmental

Hereditary

Iatrogenic

Idiopathic


Disease categories cont d

Disease Categories (cont’d)

Infectious

Neoplastic

Nosocomial

Nutritional


Hand hygiene and gloving video

Hand Hygiene and Gloving Video

Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of the hand hygiene and gloving.

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Onset course and outcome of disease

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease

The onset of disease is often noticed because of symptoms and/or signs.

A symptom is any deviation from health that is perceived or felt by the patient.

When a symptom can be seen or detected by others, it is known as a sign.


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

Symptomatology is the clinical picture of all the patient’s symptoms and signs.

A syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs associated with, and characteristic of, one particular disease.

Patients who are asymptomatic (showing no symptoms or signs) can still have a disease, but it can only be detected by medical tests.


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d1

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

The physician takes a history and performs a physical examination.

For the history of the present illness, the physician asks the patient in detail about the location, onset, duration, and severity of the symptoms.


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d2

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

The physician also asks about the patient’s past medical history, past surgical history, family history, social history, and history of allergies to drugs.

After taking the patient’s history, the physician performs a physical examination to look for signs of disease.


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d3

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

The physician uses the following techniques (as needed) during the physical examination: inspection, palpation, auscultation, and percussion.

After taking the patient’s history and performing the physical examination, the physician makes a diagnosis that identifies the nature and cause of the disease or condition.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-18 Inspection

(S. O’Brien/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-19 Palpation

(Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College)


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-20 Auscultation

(Corbis RF)


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-21 Percussion

(Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College)


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d4

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

If the physician cannot make a diagnosis, the patient is scheduled to undergo further diagnostic tests or referred to a specialist.

Symptoms and signs may be:

Acute (sudden and severe)

Subacute (less severe in intensity), or

Chronic (continuing for 3 months or more)


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d5

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

An exacerbation is a sudden worsening in the severity of the symptoms or signs.

A sequela is an abnormal condition or complication that arises because of the original disease and remains after the original disease has resolved.


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d6

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

Remission is a temporary improvement in the symptoms and signs of a disease without the underlying disease being cured.

A relapse or recurrence is a return of the original symptoms and signs of the disease.


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d7

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

The physician prescribes drugs or orders some type of therapy for the patient.

If the treatment is therapeutic, the symptoms or signs of the disease disappear.

A disease that is refractory (resistant) to treatment is one that does not respond to treatment.


Onset course and outcome of disease cont d8

Onset, Course, and Outcome of Disease (cont’d)

Certain diseases that cannot be treated with drugs or therapy may require surgery.

The prognosis is the predicted outcome of a disease.

The course of a disease can have one of three outcomes:

Recuperation or recovery

Disability

Terminal illness


Physical examination video

Physical Examination Video

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Healthcare professionals and healthcare settings

Healthcare Professionals and Healthcare Settings

Physician

The leader of the healthcare team who examines the patient, orders tests, diagnoses diseases, and treats diseases by prescribing drugs or therapy.

Surgeons are physicians who complete additional training in surgery.


Healthcare professionals and healthcare settings cont d

Healthcare Professionals and Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Physician

Primary care physicians (PCPs) specialize in family practice or pediatrics.

A physician who is on the medical staff of a hospital and admits a patient to the hospital is known as the attending physician.


Healthcare professionals and healthcare settings cont d1

Healthcare Professionals and Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Physician Extenders

PEs are healthcare professionals who work under the supervision of a physician (M.D. or D.O.).

PEs examine, diagnose, and treat patients and prescribe medications.

Physician extenders include physician’s assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs).


Healthcare professionals and healthcare settings cont d2

Healthcare Professionals and Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Nurse

Examines patients, makes nursing diagnoses, and administers treatments or drugs ordered by the physician.

Often gives hands-on care and focuses on the physical and emotional needs of the patient and the family.


Healthcare professionals and healthcare settings cont d3

Healthcare Professionals and Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Allied Health Professionals

Technologists

Technicians

Therapists

Dietitians

Medical assistants

Phlebotomists

Dental hygienists

Audiologists


Healthcare settings

Healthcare Settings

Hospital

A hospital provides care for acutely ill patients who require medical or surgical care for longer than 24 hours.

A physician must write an order in the patient’s medical record to admit or discharge the patient.

A patient in the hospital is an inpatient.


Healthcare settings1

Healthcare Settings

Hospital

Ancillary departments in the hospital provide additional types of services and include radiology, physical therapy, dietary, emergency, clinical laboratory, and pharmacy.


Healthcare settings cont d

Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Physician’s Office

Most frequently used healthcare setting.

A single physician (or group of physicians) maintains an office where patients are seen, diagnosed, treated, and counseled.

Some offices have their own laboratory and x-ray equipment for performing diagnostic tests.


Healthcare settings cont d1

Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Physician’s Office

Seriously ill patients who cannot be quickly diagnosed or adequately treated in the office are sent to a hospital.


Healthcare settings cont d2

Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Clinic

Provides healthcare services for just one type of patient or one type of disease.

For example, a well-baby clinic provides care to newborn infants.

Outpatient clinics are located in a hospital and their patients (outpatients) are not admitted to the hospital and do not stay overnight in the clinic.


Healthcare settings cont d3

Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Ambulatory Surgery Center (ASC)

An ASC is a facility where minor surgery is performed and the patient does not stay overnight.


Healthcare settings cont d4

Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Long-Term-Care Facility

A residential facility for elderly or disabled persons who are unable to care for themselves

Provides 24-hour nursing care

Persons in long-term care facilities are residents rather than patients.


Healthcare settings cont d5

Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF)

Long-term care facility that provides a high level of medical and nursing care for patients recently discharged from the hospital.


Healthcare settings cont d6

Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Home Health Agency

Provides a range of healthcare services to persons (clients) in their homes when they are unable to come to a physician’s office or clinic and do not want to live in a long-term care facility.


The body in health and disease

Figure 2-22 Home Health Nurse

(Andy Levin/Photo Researchers, Inc.)


Healthcare settings cont d7

Healthcare Settings (cont’d)

Hospice

A facility for patients who are dying from a terminal illness

Their physicians have certified that they have less than 6 months to live

Hospice services include:

Palliative care

Counseling

Emotional support for the patient and family


Abbreviations

Abbreviations


Health information management video

Health Information Management Video

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Health Information Management Video

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Health Information Management Video

Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of medical terminology and health information management.

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Health information management video3

Health Information Management Video

Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of education and health information management.

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Health information management video4

Health Information Management Video

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