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Natural Selection. In science, theories are statements or models that have been tested and confirmed many times. . In science, the term "Theory" does not express doubt. They explain a wide variety of data and observations They can be used to make predictions

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

In science, the term "Theory" does not express doubt.

    • They explain a wide variety of data and observations
    • They can be used to make predictions
    • They are not absolute, can be changed as new evidence is found
slide5

Lamarke\'s Theory of Acquired Characteristics

  • Some thought that you would gain or lose features if you overused or didn\'t use them,
  •  PROVEN TO BE WRONG!

Example:

A giraffe acquired its long neck because its ancestor stretched higher and higher into the trees to reach leaves, and that the animal’s increasingly lengthened neck was passed on to its offspring.

Photo courtesy of ucumari, creative commons, flickr

summary of darwin s theory
Summary of Darwin’s Theory

1. Organisms differ; variation is inherited

2. Organisms produce more offspring than survive

3. Organisms compete for resources

4. Organisms with advantages survive to pass those advantages to their children

5. Species alive today are descended with modifications from common ancestors

slide7

1. Variation exists among individuals in a species.2. Individuals will compete for resources (food, mates, and space)3. Competition would lead to the death of some individuals while others would survive4. Individuals that had advantageous variations are more likely to survive and reproduce.

This process came to be known as Natural SelectionThe favorable variations are called Adaptations

Photo courtesy of digitalART2, flickr creative commons

slide8

Darwin’s main ideas can be summarized in three points.

    • Natural selection is differential success in reproduction (unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce).
    • Natural selection occurs through an interaction between the environment and the variability inherent among the individual organisms making up a population.
    • The product of natural selection is the adaptation of populations of organisms to their environment.
natural selection2
Natural Selection
  • The traits that help an organism survive in a particular environment are “selected” in natural selection
slide14

Natural selection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, such that individuals with favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with less favorable phenotypes.

  • The phenotype\'s genetic basis, the genotype associated with the favorable phenotype, will increase in frequency over the following generations. Over time, this process may result in adaptations that specialize organisms for particular ecological niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new species.
slide15

While natural selection involves interactions between individual organisms and their environment, it is populations, not individuals that evolve.

  • Populations are defined as a group of interbreeding individuals of a single species that share a common geographic area.
natural selection and species fitness
Natural Selection and Species Fitness
  • Overtime, natural selection results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population.
  • These changes increase a species fitness (survival rate)
slide17

Say in a species of blob….there exists blobs of all shapes and sizes (variation)

Blobs eat the little purple organisms that live underground and on the surface.

slide18

During a particularly hot year, food became less abundant (competition), blobs that had the ability to dig into the soil to get food had a better chance of survival.

Many blobs died that year…….

slide20

The next generation had move blobs with the pointed noses. That is NATURAL SELECTION.

  • Variation
  • Competition
  • Survival
  • Reproduction
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