Natural selection
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Natural Selection. In science, theories are statements or models that have been tested and confirmed many times. . In science, the term "Theory" does not express doubt. They explain a wide variety of data and observations They can be used to make predictions

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Natural Selection

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Natural selection

Natural Selection

Natural selection

  • In science, theories are statements or models that have been tested and confirmed many times.

Natural selection

  • In science, the term "Theory" does not express doubt.

    • They explain a wide variety of data and observations

    • They can be used to make predictions

    • They are not absolute, can be changed as new evidence is found

Natural selection1

Natural Selection

Natural selection

  • Lamarke's Theory of Acquired Characteristics

  • Some thought that you would gain or lose features if you overused or didn't use them,



A giraffe acquired its long neck because its ancestor stretched higher and higher into the trees to reach leaves, and that the animal’s increasingly lengthened neck was passed on to its offspring.

Photo courtesy of ucumari, creative commons, flickr

Summary of darwin s theory

Summary of Darwin’s Theory

1. Organisms differ; variation is inherited

2. Organisms produce more offspring than survive

3. Organisms compete for resources

4. Organisms with advantages survive to pass those advantages to their children

5. Species alive today are descended with modifications from common ancestors

Natural selection

1. Variation exists among individuals in a species.2. Individuals will compete for resources (food, mates, and space)3. Competition would lead to the death of some individuals while others would survive4. Individuals that had advantageous variations are more likely to survive and reproduce.

This process came to be known as Natural SelectionThe favorable variations are called Adaptations

Photo courtesy of digitalART2, flickr creative commons

Natural selection

  • Darwin’s main ideas can be summarized in three points.

    • Natural selection is differential success in reproduction (unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce).

    • Natural selection occurs through an interaction between the environment and the variability inherent among the individual organisms making up a population.

    • The product of natural selection is the adaptation of populations of organisms to their environment.

Natural selection2

Natural Selection

  • The traits that help an organism survive in a particular environment are “selected” in natural selection

Natural selection

  • Natural selection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, such that individuals with favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with less favorable phenotypes.

  • The phenotype's genetic basis, the genotype associated with the favorable phenotype, will increase in frequency over the following generations. Over time, this process may result in adaptations that specialize organisms for particular ecological niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new species.

Natural selection

  • While natural selection involves interactions between individual organisms and their environment, it is populations, not individuals that evolve.

  • Populations are defined as a group of interbreeding individuals of a single species that share a common geographic area.

Natural selection and species fitness

Natural Selection and Species Fitness

  • Overtime, natural selection results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population.

  • These changes increase a species fitness (survival rate)

Natural selection

  • Say in a species of blob….there exists blobs of all shapes and sizes (variation)

Blobs eat the little purple organisms that live underground and on the surface.

Natural selection

During a particularly hot year, food became less abundant (competition), blobs that had the ability to dig into the soil to get food had a better chance of survival.

Many blobs died that year…….

Natural selection

The ones that survived mated and passed their genes to the next generation. (reproduction)

Natural selection

The next generation had move blobs with the pointed noses. That is NATURAL SELECTION.

  • Variation

  • Competition

  • Survival

  • Reproduction

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