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Lesson Overview. 8.1 Energy and Life. THINK ABOUT IT. Homeostasis is hard work. Organisms and the cells within them have to grow and develop, move materials around, build new molecules, and respond to environmental changes. What powers so much activity, and where does that power come from?.

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Lesson overview

Lesson Overview

8.1 Energy and Life


Think about it

THINK ABOUT IT

  • Homeostasis is hard work. Organisms and the cells within them have to grow and develop, move materials around, build new molecules, and respond to environmental changes.

  • What powers so much activity, and where does that power come from?


Chemical energy and atp

Chemical Energy and ATP

  • Why is ATP useful to cells?

  • ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells.


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

  • Heterotroph

  • Autotroph

  • Photosynthesis:


Chemical energy and atp1

Chemical Energy and ATP

  • Energy is the ability to do work.

  • Your cells are busy using energy to build new molecules, contract muscles, and carry out active transport.

  • Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would cease to exist.


Chemical energy and atp2

Chemical Energy and ATP

  • One of the most important compounds that cells use to store and release

  • energy is adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

  • ATP consists of adenine, a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, and three

  • phosphate groups.


Storing energy

Storing Energy

  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) looks almost like ATP, except that it has two phosphate groups instead of three. ADP contains some energy, but not as much as ATP.

  • When a cell has energy available, it can store small amounts of it by adding phosphate groups to ADP, producing ATP.

  • ADP is like a rechargeable battery that powers the machinery of the cell.


Releasing energy

Releasing Energy

  • Cells can release the energy stored in ATP by breaking the bonds between the second and third phosphate groups.

  • Because a cell can add or subtract these phosphate groups, it has an efficient way of storing and releasing energy as needed.


Using biochemical energy

Using Biochemical Energy

  • One way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to carry out active transport.

  • Many cell membranes contain sodium-potassium pumps. ATP provides the energy that keeps these pumps working, maintaining a balance of ions on both sides of the cell membrane.


Heterotrophs and autotrophs

Heterotrophs and Autotrophs

  • What happens during the process of photosynthesis?

  • In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.


Heterotrophs and autotrophs1

Heterotrophs and Autotrophs

  • Organisms that obtain food by consuming other living things are known as heterotrophs.

  • Some heterotrophs get their food by eating plants.

  • Other heterotrophs, such as this cheetah, obtain food from plants indirectly by feeding on plant-eating animals.

  • Still other heterotrophs, such as mushrooms, obtain food by decomposing other organisms.


Heterotrophs and autotrophs2

Heterotrophs and Autotrophs

  • Organisms that make their own food are called autotrophs.

  • Plants, algae, and some bacteria are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food. The process by which autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to produce high-energy carbohydrates that can be used for food is known as photosynthesis.


Lesson overview1

Lesson Overview

8.2 Photosynthesis: An Overview


Think about it1

THINK ABOUT IT

  • How would you design a system to capture the energy of sunlight and convert it into a useful form?

  • Plants have solved these issues—and maybe we can learn a trick or two from them.


Chlorophyll and chloroplasts

Chlorophyll and Chloroplasts

  • What role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?

  • Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments.


Vocabulary1

Vocabulary

  • Pigment

  • Cholorphyll

  • Thylakoid

  • Stroma

  • NADP+

  • Light-dependent reaction

  • Light-independent reaction


Light

Light

  • Energy from the sun travels to Earth in the form of light.

  • Sunlight is a mixture of different wavelengths, many of which are visible to our eyes and make up the visible spectrum.


Light1

Light

  • Our eyes see the different wavelengths of the visible spectrum as different colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.


Pigments

Pigments

  • Plants gather the sun’s energy with light-absorbing molecules called pigments.

  • The plants’ principal pigment is chlorophyll.


Pigments1

Pigments

  • The two types of chlorophyll found in plants, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, absorb light very well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum, but not in the green region, as shown in the graph.

  • Leaves reflect green light, which is why plants look green.


Pigments2

Pigments

  • Plants also contain red and orange pigments such as carotene that absorb light in other regions of the spectrum.


Pigments3

Pigments

  • Most of the time, the green color of the chlorophyll overwhelms the other pigments, but as temperatures drop and chlorophyll molecules break down, the red and orange pigments may be seen.


Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts

  • Photosynthesis takes place inside organelles called chloroplasts.

  • Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic membranes called thylakoids, which are interconnected and arranged in stacks known as grana.


Chloroplasts1

Chloroplasts

  • Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes.

  • The fluid portion outside of the thylakoids is known as the stroma.


Energy collection

Energy Collection

  • Because light is a form of energy, any compound that absorbs light absorbs energy. Chlorophyll absorbs visible light especially well.

  • When chlorophyll absorbs light, a large fraction of the light energy is transferred to electrons. These high-energy electrons make photosynthesis work.


High energy electrons

High-Energy Electrons

  • What are electron carrier molecules?

  • An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.


High energy electrons1

High-Energy Electrons

  • The high-energy electrons produced by chlorophyll are highly reactive and require a special “carrier.”


High energy electrons2

High-Energy Electrons

  • Think of a high-energy electron as being similar to a hot potato. If you wanted to move the potato from one place to another, you would use an oven mitt—a carrier—to transport it.

  • Plants use electron carriers to transport high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules.


High energy electrons3

High-Energy Electrons

  • NADP+(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is a carrier molecule.

  • NADP+ accepts and holds two high-energy electrons, along with a hydrogen ion (H+). In this way, it is converted into NADPH.

  • The NADPH can then carry the high-energy electrons to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.


An overview of photosynthesis

An Overview of Photosynthesis

  • What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?

  • Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide (reactants) into high-energy sugars and oxygen (products).


An overview of photosynthesis1

An Overview of Photosynthesis

  • Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen.

  • In symbols:

  • 6 CO2 + 6 H2O  C6H12O6 + 6 O2

  • In words:

  • Carbon dioxide + Water  Sugars + Oxygen


An overview of photosynthesis2

An Overview of Photosynthesis

  • Plants use the sugars generated by photosynthesis to produce complex carbohydrates such as starches, and to provide energy for the synthesis of other compounds, including proteins and lipids.


Light dependent reactions

Light-Dependent Reactions

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eY1ReqiYwYs

  • Photosynthesis involves two sets of reactions.

  • The first set of reactions is known as the light-dependent reactions because they require the direct involvement of light and light-absorbing pigments.


Light dependent reactions1

Light-Dependent Reactions

  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP and NADPH.

  • These reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast.


Light dependent reactions2

Light-Dependent Reactions

  • Water is required as a source of electrons and hydrogen ions. Oxygen is released as a byproduct.


Light independent reactions

Light-Independent Reactions

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHU27qYJNU0

  • Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and complete the process of photosynthesis by producing sugars and other carbohydrates.

  • During light-independent reactions, ATP and NADPH molecules produced in the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars from carbon dioxide.


Light independent reactions1

Light-Independent Reactions

  • No light is required to power the light-independent reactions.

  • The light-independent reactions take place outside the thylakoids, in the stroma.


The process of photosynthesis 8 3

The process of Photosynthesis 8.3


Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

  • Key questions:

    • What happens during the light-dependent reaction

    • What happens during the light-independent reaction

    • What factors effect photosynthesis?

  • Vocab:

    • Photosystem

    • Electron transport chain

    • ATP synthase

    • Calvin Cycle


Light dependent reactions generating atp and nadph

Light Dependent Reactions:Generating ATP and NADPH

What is the purpose of the LDR’s?

Light dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into energy carriers ATP and NADPH

Where does this happen?

  • Chloroplast

  • Thylakoid MEMBRANE

    • Photosystem II

    • Photosystem I

    • Electron transport chain


Light dependent continued

Light –dependent (continued...)

  • Photosystem II: Light energy absorbed by PSII produces high energy electrons. H20 molecules are split to replace those electrons, releasing H+ and oxygen

  • Electron Transport chain: High-E electrons move down the chain towards PSI. Energy donated is used to pump H+ ions across the membrane into the thylakoid space.

2

1


Ldr s continued

LDR’s continued…

3.Photosystem I: The electron are “re-charged” by pigments absorbing energy from the sunlight!

4. NADP+: These charged E’s now move down the rest of the chain and are transferred to waiting NADP+ forming NADPH.

5.ATP Synthase: H+ build in concentration within the space. This concentration and increasing charge forces ions through the ATP synthase which act as a turbine. As the ions pass the energy created produces ATP from ADP.

4

5

3

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hj_WKgnL6MI&feature=player_detailpage


Lesson overview

So………

  • What are the Reactants of the LDR?

  • What are the Products of the LDR?


Now the light independent reactions lir s

Now … the Light-Independent Reactions (LIR’s)


The calvin cycle

“The Calvin Cycle”

  • 1.CO2 enters cycle

  • 2. Combine with Rubisco

  • 3. Uses ATP and NADPH

  • 4. Production of Sugar

  • 5. Leftovers go back for cycle

  • 6. Use more ATP to have Rubisco

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_XQR800AgM&feature=player_detailpage


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