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The ILC Global Design Effort. Barry Barish SPC Meeting CERN 13-Aug-05. Why a TeV Scale e + e - Accelerator?. Two parallel developments over the past few years ( the science & the technology )

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the ilc global design effort
The ILC Global Design Effort

Barry Barish

SPC Meeting

CERN

13-Aug-05

why a tev scale e e accelerator
Why a TeV Scale e+e- Accelerator?
  • Two parallel developments over the past few years (the science & the technology)
    • The precision information from LEP and other data have pointed to a low mass Higgs; Understanding electroweak symmetry breaking, whether supersymmetry or an alternative, will require precision measurements.
    • There are strong arguments for the complementarity between a ~0.5-1.0 TeV LC and the LHC science.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

slide3

Electroweak Precision Measurements

LEP results strongly point to a low mass Higgs and an energy scale for new physics < 1TeV

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

why a tev scale e e accelerator1
Why a TeV Scale e+e- Accelerator?
  • Two parallel developments over the past few years (the science & the technology)
    • The precision information from LEP and other data have pointed to a low mass Higgs; Understanding electroweak symmetry breaking, whether supersymmetry or an alternative, will require precision measurements.
    • There are strong arguments for the complementarity between a ~0.5-1.0 TeV LC and the LHC science.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

the 500 gev linear collider spin measurement

LHC/ILC Complementarity

The 500 GeV Linear Collider Spin Measurement

LHC should discover the Higgs

The linear collider will measure the spin of any Higgs it can produce.

The Higgs must have spin zero

The process e+e–HZ can be used to measure the spin of a 120 GeV Higgs particle. The error bars are based on 20 fb–1 of luminosity at each point.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

extra dimensions

Linear collider

LHC/ILC Complementarity

Extra Dimensions

New space-time dimensions can be mapped by studying the emission of gravitons into the extra dimensions, together with a photon or jets emitted into the normal dimensions.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

why a tev scale e e accelerator2
Why a TeV Scale e+e- Accelerator?
  • Two parallel developments over the past few years (the science & the technology)
    • Two alternate designs -- “warm” and “cold” had come to the stage where the show stoppers had been eliminated and the concepts were well understood.
    • A major step toward a new international machine requires uniting behind one technology, and then make a unified global design based on the recommended technology.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

tesla concept
TESLA Concept
  • The main linacs based on 1.3 GHz superconducting technology operating at 2 K.
  • The cryoplant, is of a size comparable to that of the LHC, consisting of seven subsystems strung along the machines every 5 km.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

slide9

The JLC-X and NLC are essentially a unified single design with common parameters

  • The main linacs are based on 11.4 GHz, room temperature copper technology.

GLC

GLC/NLC Concept

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

which technology to choose
Which Technology to Choose?
  • Two alternate designs -- “warm” and “cold” had come to the stage where the show stoppers had been eliminated and the concepts were well understood.
  • A major step toward a new international machine requires uniting behind one technology, and then make a unified global design based on the recommended technology.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

the itrp recommendation
The ITRP Recommendation
  • We recommend that the linear collider be based on superconducting rf technology
    • This recommendation is made with the understanding that we are recommending a technology, not a design. We expect the final design to be developed by a team drawn from the combined warm and cold linear collider communities, taking full advantage of the experience and expertise of both(from the Executive Summary).

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

scrf technology recommendation
SCRF Technology Recommendation
  • The recommendation of ITRP was presented to ILCSC & ICFA on August 19, 2004 in a joint meeting in Beijing.
  • ICFA unanimously endorsed the ITRP’s recommendation on August 20, 2004

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

slide13

The Community Self-Organized

Nov 13-15, 2004

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

kek workshop organization
WG1 Parms & layout

WG2 Linac

WG3 Injectors

WG4 Beam Delivery

WG5 High Grad. SCRF

WG6 Communications

WG1 LET beam dynamics

WG2 Main Linac

WG3a Sources

WG3b Damping Rings

WG4 Beam Delivery

WG5 SCRF Cavity Package

WG6 Communications

KEK Workshop Organization

Birth of the GDE

and Preparation for Snowmass

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

global design effort
Global Design Effort
  • The Mission of the GDE
    • Produce a design for the ILC that includes a detailed design concept, performance assessments, reliable international costing, an industrialization plan , siting analysis, as well as detector concepts and scope.
    • Coordinate worldwide prioritized proposal driven R & D efforts (to demonstrate and improve the performance, reduce the costs, attain the required reliability, etc.)

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

gde members
Chris Adolphsen, SLAC

Jean-Luc Baldy, CERN

Philip Bambade, LAL, Orsay

Barry Barish, Caltech

Wilhelm Bialowons, DESY

Grahame Blair, Royal Holloway

Jim Brau, University of Oregon

Karsten Buesser, DESY

Elizabeth Clements, Fermilab

Michael Danilov, ITEP

Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CERN,

Gerald Dugan, Cornell University

Atsushi Enomoto, KEK

Brian Foster, Oxford University

Warren Funk, JLAB

Jie Gao, IHEP

Terry Garvey, LAL-IN2P3

Hitoshi Hayano, KEK

Tom Himel, SLAC

Bob Kephart, Fermilab

Eun San Kim, Pohang Acc Lab

Hyoung Suk Kim, Kyungpook Nat’l Univ

Shane Koscielniak, TRIUMF

Vic Kuchler, Fermilab

Lutz Lilje, DESY

Tom Markiewicz, SLAC

David Miller, Univ College of London

Shekhar Mishra, Fermilab

Youhei Morita, KEK

Olivier Napoly, CEA-Saclay

Hasan Padamsee, Cornell University

Carlo Pagani, DESY

Nan Phinney, SLAC

Dieter Proch, DESY

Pantaleo Raimondi, INFN

Tor Raubenheimer, SLAC

Francois Richard, LAL-IN2P3

Perrine Royole-Degieux, GDE/LAL

Kenji Saito, KEK

Daniel Schulte, CERN

Tetsuo Shidara, KEK

Sasha Skrinsky, Budker Institute

Fumihiko Takasaki, KEK

Laurent Jean Tavian, CERN

Nobu Toge, KEK

Nick Walker, DESY

Andy Wolski, LBL

Hitoshi Yamamoto, Tohoku Univ

Kaoru Yokoya, KEK

49 members

GDE Members

Americas 16

Europe 21

Asia 12

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

participation in snowmass
Participation in Snowmass

670 Scientists attended two week workshop

at

Snowmass

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

gde organization for snowmass
WG1 LET bdyn.

WG2 Main Linac

WG3a Sources

WG3b DR

WG4 BDS

WG5 Cavity

GG1 Parameters

GG2 Instrumentation

GG3 Operations & Reliability

GG4 Cost & Engineering

GG5 Conventional Facilities

GG6 Physics Options

GDE Organization for Snowmass)

Technical sub-system

Working Groups

Provide input

Global Group

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

the gde plan and schedule

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

CLIC

Global Design Effort

Project

LHC

Physics

Baseline configuration

Reference Design

The GDE Plan and Schedule

Technical Design

ILC R&D Program

Expression of Interest to Host

International Mgmt

slide20

Starting Point for the GDE

Superconducting RF Main Linac

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

parameters for the ilc
Parameters for the ILC
  • Ecm adjustable from 200 – 500 GeV
  • Luminosity ∫Ldt = 500 fb-1 in 4 years
  • Ability to scan between 200 and 500 GeV
  • Energy stability and precision below 0.1%
  • Electron polarization of at least 80%
  • The machine must be upgradeable to 1 TeV

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

higgs coupling and extra dimensions
Higgs Coupling and Extra Dimensions
  • ILC precisely measures Higgs interaction strength with standard model particles.
  • Straight blue line gives the standard model predictions.
  • Range of predictions in models with extra dimensions -- yellow band, (at most 30% below the Standard Model
  • The models predict that the effect on each particle would be exactly the same size.
  • The red error bars indicate the level of precision attainable at the ILC for each particle
  • Sufficient to discover extra dimensional physics.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

design approach
Design Approach
  • Create a baseline configuration for the machine
    • Document a concept for ILC machine with a complete layout, parameters etc. defined by the end of 2005
    • Make forward looking choices, consistent with attaining performance goals, and understood well enough to do a conceptual design and reliable costing by end of 2006.
    • Technical and cost considerations will be an integral part in making these choices.
    • Baseline will be put under “configuration control,” with a defined process for changes to the baseline.
    • A reference design will be carried out in 2006. I am proposing we use a “parametric” design and costing approach.
    • Technical performance and physics performance will be evaluated for the reference design

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

parametric approach
Parametric Approach
  • Parametric approach to design
    • machine parameters : a space to optimize the machine
    • Trial parameter space, being evaluated by subsystems
    • machine design : incorporate change without redesign; incorporates value engineering, trade studies at each step to minimize costs

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

approach to ilc r d program
Approach to ILC R&D Program
  • Proposal-driven R&D in support of the baseline design.
    • Technical developments, demonstration experiments, industrialization, etc.
  • Proposal-driven R&D in support of alternatives to the baseline
    • Proposals for potential improvements to the baseline, resources required, time scale, etc.
  • Develop a prioritized DETECTOR R&D program aimed at technical developments needed to reach combined design performance goals

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

the key decisions
The Key Decisions

Critical choices: luminosity parameters & gradient

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

cost drivers
Cost Drivers

Civil

SCRF Linac

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

what gradient to choose
What Gradient to Choose?

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

how costs scale with gradient
How Costs Scale with Gradient?

35MV/m is close to optimum

Japanese are still pushing for 40-45MV/m

30 MV/m would give safety margin

Relative Cost

Gradient MV/m

C. Adolphsen (SLAC)

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

cavity fabrication
Cavity Fabrication

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

gradient
Gradient

Results from KEK-DESY collaboration

must reduce spread (need more statistics)

single-cell measurements (in nine-cell cavities)

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

improved fabrication
Improved Fabrication

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

improved processing electropolishing
Improved ProcessingElectropolishing

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

slide34

Electro-polishing

(Improve surface quality -- pioneering work done at KEK)

BCP

EP

  • Several single cell cavities at g > 40 MV/m
  • 4 nine-cell cavities at ~35 MV/m, one at 40 MV/m
  • Theoretical Limit 50 MV/m

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

baseline gradient
Baseline Gradient

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

improved cavity shapes
Improved Cavity Shapes

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

large grain single crystal nb material
Large Grain Single Crystal Nb Material

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

ilc siting and civil construction
ILC Siting and Civil Construction
  • The design is intimately tied to the features of the site
    • 1 tunnels or 2 tunnels?
    • Deep or shallow?
    • Laser straight linac or follow earth’s curvature in segments?
  • GDE ILC Design will be done to samples sites in the three regions
    • North American sample site will be near Fermilab
    • Japan choosing between three final sites
    • Europe sample sites --- CERN and DESY

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

1 vs 2 tunnels
1 vs 2 Tunnels
  • Tunnel must contain
    • Linac Cryomodule
    • RF system
    • Damping Ring Lines
  • Save maybe $0.5B
  • Issues
    • Maintenance
    • Safety
    • Duty Cycle

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

possible tunnel configurations
Possible Tunnel Configurations
  • One tunnel of two, with variants ??

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

ilc civil program
ILC Civil Program

Civil engineers from all three regions working to develop methods of analyzing the siting issues and comparing sites.

The current effort is not intended to select a potential site, but rather to understand from the beginning how the features of sites will effect the design, performance and cost

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

baseline klystrons

Toshiba

Thales

CPI

Baseline Klystrons

Available today: 10 MW Multi-Beam Klystrons (MBKs) that operate at up to 10 Hz

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

improved klystron
Improved Klystron ?

5 MW Inductive Output

Tube (IOT)

10 MW Sheet Beam

Klystron (SBK)

Low Voltage

10 MW MBK

Parameters similar to

10 MW MBK

Voltage e.g. 65 kV

Current 238A

More beams

Perhaps use a Direct

Switch Modulator

Klystron

Output

IOT

KEK

SLAC

CPI

Drive

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

slide44

RF Distribution

BASELINE DESIGN

Similar to TDR and XFEL scheme.

POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENT?

With two-level power division and proper phase lengths, expensive circulators can be eliminated. Reflections from pairs of cavities are directed to loads. Also, fewer types of hybrid couplers are needed in this scheme. There is a small increased risk to klystrons. (Total reflection from a pair of cavities sends < 0.7% of klystron power back to the klystron.)

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

beamsize growth study cumulative after feedback
Beamsize Growth Study (cumulative after feedback)

+

Kicker, current,

energy jitter,

BPM resol.

+

5 Hz

ground.

+

Component

jitter

+

Undulator

30 min

ground.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

availability studies 1 vs 2 tunnels
Availability Studies1 vs 2 tunnels

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

improving mean time between failures
Improving Mean Time Between Failures

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

damping rings three variants
Damping Rings: Three variants

6km

3km

17 km ‘dogbone’

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

beam delivery mdi
Beam Delivery, MDI
  • Strawman solution (BCD recommendation)
  • Appears to work for nearly all suggested parameter sets:
  • Exceptions:
  • 1 TeV high-luminosity (new parameter set suggested for 20mrad)
  • 2 mrad extraction has problems with high disruption sets

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

industrial studies
Industrial Studies
  • Industrial studies in three regions are essential.
    • Important to understand industrial costs
    • Important to examine potential cost reductions
    • Need to think about what studies are needed and when
    • Focus on the cost drivers for ILC, important for cost estimate
    • Focus on places where there is technical risk to the project goals
    • ILC need a point-of-contact and a plan for industrial studies

2nd ILC Industrial Forum Meeting is scheduled to be held at

Fermilab Sept. 21st and 22nd, 2005.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

slide51

Detector Concepts and Challenges

  • Three concepts under study
  • Typically requires factors of two or so improvements in granularity, resolution, etc. from present generation detectors
  • Focused R&D program required to develop the detectors -- end of 2005
  • Detector Concepts will be used to simulate performance of reference design vs physics goals next year.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

accelerator physics challenges
Accelerator Physics Challenges
  • Develop High Gradient Superconducting RF systems
    • Requires efficient RF systems, capable of accelerating high power beams (~MW) with small beam spots(~nm).
  • Achieving nm scale beam spots
    • Requires generating high intensity beams of electrons and positrons
    • Damping the beams to ultra-low emittance in damping rings
    • Transporting the beams to the collision point without significant emittance growth or uncontrolled beam jitter
    • Cleanly dumping the used beams.
  • Reaching Luminosity Requirements
    • Designs satisfy the luminosity goals in simulations
    • A number of challenging problems in accelerator physics and technology must be solved, however.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

creating an international project
Creating an International Project
  • Several Studies and Plans for ILC
    • OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
      • “A template for Establishing, Funding and Managing an International Scientific Research Project Based on an Agreement Between Governments and Institutions”
    • Features a template that covers all aspects of creating agreements for an international collaboration, in particular formal agreements, funding arrangements, central structure and using existing institutions

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

oecd international project template
OECD International Project Template

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

creating an international project1
Creating an International Project
  • Several Studies and Plans for ILC
    • TESLA proposed plan for Project Organization
      • “Organization and Management of an International Collaboration on the TESLA Linear Collider”
    • Features a “Global Accelerator Network”, which is basically a collaboration between institutions where as much as possible the participation is treated as an extension of the laboratory programs and even the accelerator is to be run locally from the collaborating laboratories.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

tesla proposed project organization
TESLA Proposed Project Organization

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

creating an international project2
Creating an International Project
  • Several Studies and Plans for ILC
    • ECFA EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR FUTURE ACCELERATORS subcomittee EUROPEAN LINEAR COLLIDER STEERING GROUP
      • “Report of the Sub-group on Organizational Matters”
    • Features a detailed breakdown of top level governance and project management, how they relate to each other. It is based on regional organizations; mostly in-kind contributions; shared central management, oversight, responsibility. It is concerned with Europe and how to do it within European Labs (CERN) and structures

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

ecfa ilc governance and management
ECFA ILC Governance and Management

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

slide59

Conclusions

  • Remarkable progress in the past two years toward realizing an international linear collider:

important R&D on accelerator systems

definition of parameters for physics

choice of technology

start the global design effort

funding agencies are engaged

  • Many major hurdles remain before the ILC becomes a reality (funding, site, international organization, and most importantly, a technical design and construction plan)
  • The time scale for ILC project readiness is consistent with early results from LHC and CLIC feasability studies.

Scientific Policy Committee - CERN

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