The Respiratory and Muscular Systems. By: Emily Soule Patricia Muller Ting Yi. Respiratory System.
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The function of the respiratory system is to transport oxygen from the air we breath into our nostrils to the lungs. The system warms, humidifies, and filters the air. The oxygen is then transferred to the blood where it is carried throughout the entire body and to all other body systems.
Alveoli are small sacs in the lung involved with gas exchange in the blood.
The muscular system consists of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
Muscle permits movement, circulates blood, and provides structure to the body.
They consist of myofibrils
Muscle cells have many different components.
which are made up of sarcomeres
These contractions are stimulated by electrical impulses transmitted from motor nerves.
Sarcomeres are made up of actin and myosin, which work together to contract the muscles.
The diaphragm is a long, flat muscle that separates the lungs from the intestines. The movement of the diaphragm causes the lungs to inflate and deflate.
Emphysema is a long-term, progressive disease of the lungs that primarily causes shortness of breath.
When people have emphysema, their tissues necessary to support the physical shape and function of the lungs are destroyed.
Emphysema is called an obstructive lung disease because the destruction of lung tissue around smaller sacs, called alveoli, makes these air sacs unable to hold their functional shape upon exhalation.
hyper inflated emphysema lung
Emphysema is most often caused by tobacco smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution.
Emphysema destroys elastic fibers that hold open small airways leading to the air sacs
Reduces surface area of lungs and amount of oxygen that reaches bloodstream
When emphysema takes effect, the lungs cannot fully relax, the abdominal muscles cannot completely relax
The diaphragm remains flexed, which can cause pain in the torso.
Since emphysema restricts the amount of air that enters the lungs, it results in a decrease in lung capacity and muscle action