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The ABC’s of Science

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The ABC’s of Science

Intro to Life Science

Measurement

Metric System Part 1:

Length

Volume

- Botany: the study of plants, uses PS to explain how plants use carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O)to make food

- Geology: explain earthquake waves and rock composition
- Oceanography: chemistry of ocean water
- Ecology: the nitrogen cycle and the transfer of energy between organisms in a food chain
- Biology: how the heart pumps blood, how the eyes & ears work and how the brain sends electrical impulses throughout the body.

- The Metric System
- Safety Rules
- The Scientific Method
--> We will be “reviewing” all of the above… pay attention, you will be tested on it!

- Which group can measure the length of the room the BEST?
- In your group, plan (quietly and secretly) HOW you are going to measure the room. You have 3.5 minutes to plan
- You may use any of the measuring tools on the counter.
- Now, grab your tools and MEASURE (you have 4.5 minutes)

- Write down our answer on a sticky note.
- Let’s see who got the answer.
- Answer: the room is _________ long.
- Did everyone get the same answer?
- Why not?

- Numbers and units are used to make measurements.
- The distance from your desk to my desk could be 25 shoe lengths or 30 shoe lengths.
- It depends on how big the shoe is.
- Think of Shaq’s foot versus Mini-Me.

- You can see that to use practical measurements, a measurement standard HAS to be used.
- In other words, everyone has to use the SAME system or units.
- Otherwise, it just gets confusing.

Wow, why didn't

I think of that!

- A standardis a fixed quantity used by everyone when measuring.
- Here in America we use an English system: foot, yard, and mile.
- However, MOST people use another system called the International System of Units or SI(which stands for Système Internationale d’Unités)
- This is the modern form of the metric system.

- By using this system ALL scientists can understand each others measurements.
- If I conducted an experiment here in America, even someone in Zimbabwe would be able to understand my measurements.
- And, everything is done in multiples of 10, so changing from one unit to another is easier than with English units.

- OK, let’s get this as simple as we can.
- We are going to look at all of our metric measurement units as two-part words.
- The first part is the PREFIX.
- The second part is the type of UNIT.
- So --> PREFIX - UNIT

- Here are some important prefixes:
- You need to memorize these

- Here are some important UNITs, and you need to memorize these too.

- One kilometer is equal to ____ meters.
- kilo - meter
- prefix = kilo or 1000
- meter = unit measuring distance

- kilo - meter
- Therefore: 1 kilometer = 1000 meters.
- 5 kilometers would be:
- 5 x 1000 meters = 5,000 meters

- Always remember to break it down!

- Here’s another way to go from one unit to another; just remember:
- King Henry Died of Drinking Chocolate Milk Mmmmmm.
- King Henry Died of Drinking Chocolate Milk Mmmm
i e e e e i i

l c k c n l c

o t a i t l r

o i i o

- To convert to a larger unit, move the decimal place to the left (divide)
- To convert to a smaller unit, move the decimal place to the right (multiply)

- 10 grams = _____ kilograms
- Move the decimal three places to the left (divide)
- .01kg

- 56 meters = _____ centimeters
- Move the decimal two places to the right (multiply)
- 5,600 cm

- 876 centimeters = ____ kilometers
- Move the decimal five places to the left (divide)
- .00876 km

- The meter (m) is the SI unit of length.
- A meter is about the distance from a doorknob to the floor.
- A driver golf club is also about a meter in length.
- The meter is divided into 100 equal parts called centimeters (cm).
- There are 100 centimeters in a meter:
- 100cm = 1 m

- An even smaller unit is a millimeter (mm).
- The prefix milli- means 1/1000, so…
- 1000 mm = 1 m
- 10 mm = 1 cm

- Long distances are measured in kilometers (km)
- Note: here is the US, we measure speed by miles per hour, or mph. In most other countries, they measure in kilometers per hour.

- Name 3 things that are about one meter long
- Name 3 things that are measured in centimeters
- Name 3 things that are small enough to be measured in millimeters

4. Meters: golf club, bath towels

5. Centimeters: your little fingernail, the distance between the lines on standard notebook paper, the width of a large paper clip

6. Millimeters: wire diameter, book thickness, tape width, camera film

- Have you ever heard someone say “this shampoo gives my hair a lot of volume!!!”
- What does that mean?
- Volume means to take up space.
- Or, volume is the amount of space occupied by an object.
- So if someone’s hair has a lot of volume, that means it is full.
- It takes up a lot of space.

- For solid rectangular objects, the volume is the length x width x height.
- V = l x w x h
- A cubic meter (m3) is a unit of volume.
- A cubic meter is a very large unit - it contains 1,000,000 cubic centimeters.

7. What is the volume of this solid?

- V = l x w x h
- V = 4cm x 1cm x 2cm
- V = 8 cm3
8. What is the volume of this solid?

- V = 3cm x 3cm x 3cm
- V = 27 cm3

- For liquid objects, we use graduated cylinders to measure the volume.
- In cooking, we may also use measuring cups, teaspoons or tablespoons.
- The level of a liquid in a graduated cylinder shows the volume of the liquid.
- A liter (L) is a unit that is usually used to express volume
- A soft drink bottle is a 2-liter bottle.

- For smaller volume measurements, we also use:
- milliliter (ml)
- cubic centimeter (cm3).

- One liter contains 1000 milliliters or 1000 cubic centimeters.
- 1L = 1000ml = 1000 cm3
- 1mL = 1 cm3

- To read the volume of the liquid, note the level at the bottom of the curve.
- We call this the meniscus.

9. What is the volume in ml?

- 73 ml
10. What is the volume in ml?

- 21.5 ml

- So, how would I measure the volume of an irregular object such as a piece of clay?
- I can’t measure the sides and I can’t use a measuring cup.
- But I CAN still use a graduated cylinder.
- Simply submerge the object in the graduated cylinder and record the difference in water level.
- We call this measuring volume by displacement.
- You will practice it during the lab today.