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笼型异步电机变压变频调速系统 ( VVVF 系统) —— 转差功率不变型调速系统 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 6 章. 笼型异步电机变压变频调速系统 ( VVVF 系统) —— 转差功率不变型调速系统. 电力拖动自动控制系统. 概 述. 异步电机的变压变频调速系统一般简称为变频调速系统。由于在调速时转差功率不随转速而变化,调速范围宽,无论是高速还是低速时效率都较高,在采取一定的技术措施后能实现高动态性能,可与直流调速系统媲美。因此现在应用面很广,是本篇的重点。. 本章提要. 变压变频调速的基本控制方式 异步电动机 电压-频率协调控制时的机械特性 * 电力电子变压变频器的主要类型 变压变频调速系统中的脉宽调制 ( PWM ) 技术

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笼型异步电机变压变频调速系统 ( VVVF 系统) —— 转差功率不变型调速系统

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6

VVVF



  • *

  • PWM


6.1

m


  • m

  • m


6-1

EgV

Hz

f1

Ns

kNs

m

Wb


6-1 Eg f1 m


6-1 m f1 f1N Eg

6-2


UsEg

6-3


Us Eg Us

b a


Us

UsN

O

f 1N

f 1

6-1

b

a


f1NUsUsNUs= UsN


Us

m

UsN

f1

f1N

O

mN

Us

m

6-2



6.2

  • -


55-3 Te= f (s) Us 1

6-4


ss

6-5

ss Te = fs6-3


s 16-4Rr'

6-6

s1s Te = fs


n

s

Te

Temax

0

n0

0

1

Temax

Te

s

sm

6-3


-

6-4 Te ns Us 1

Us 1


1. Us /1

6-1

6-7


6-8

6-5

6-9


Us /1 Tes1 n 16-4


55-55-5

6-10


Temax 1TemaxUs6-4


n

O

6-4


2. Eg /1

  • Eg

  • Es

  • Er


Rs

Lls

Llr

Is

Ir

Us

I0

Es

Eg

Er

Rr /s

Lm

1

6-5


Us Eg /16-1 m


6-11

6-12


s6-12 s

6-13


s 16-12 Rr'2

6-14

s


6-46-12 Eg /1 s Us /1 s Eg /1


6-12 s dTe / ds = 0Eg /1

6-15

6-16


6-16Eg /1Temax Us /1

Eg /1


n

O

Temax

Eg /1


3. Er /1

Er /1

6-17


6-18

6-6


s

0

1

Te

0

Er /1

c

a

b

Eg /1

Us /1

6-6


Er /1

Er /1


6-16-1 Eg m Er rm

6-19


rm = Constant

Er /16-7


4

1 Us /1 = Constant


2Eg /1rm = Constant


3 Er /1 rm

Er /1 = Constant

rm


  • Us= UsN6-4

6-20


6-10

6-21

6-7


<

<

<

O

6-7



PI



  • 6-22


  • 6-22

    6-23


dTe /dt = 0

6-24

6-25


n

O

Te

6-8

6-8


55-45-5

5-4

5-5


1s=0Te= 0 smTemax


26-255-4 Lls << Lmsm| << sm|

Is = const.

Us = const.

3


4 IsIs Temax| Temax| 6-245-56-8

Is = const.

Us = const.


1

2


1

2


1

1

2

3



R1

I2

I1

Em

R2/S

Im

U1


T-1

R1

R2/S

I2/

I1

Im

R2/S

U1

T-1


T-1

0


T-1


  • Us1

  • Er/1


6.3(PWM)

  • (SPWM)

  • PWM(SHEPWM)

  • PWM(CHBPWM)

  • PWM(SVPWM)


PWM

--


VT1

VT3

VT5

VT4

VT6

VT2

VT1~VT6VD1~VD6



2080PWM


PWM

PWM1PWM

PWM2PWM3PWM


PWM

PWM

PWM


PWM

PWM

PWM

1


THD

2

3mU1m


m

011Nm

=0.8~0.9

4,


5

9


KHz


(SPWM)

1. PWM

Carrier waveModulation wave


6-18 PWM


Sinusoidal pulse width modulationSPWMSPWM


2. SPWM

  • SPWM

  • SPWM


VT1

VT3

VT2

VT4

PWM

PWM


1PWM


2PWM


3

6-18

N

i


u(t)N


i


K=1

N

.


N=1

k=2N-1


3. PWM

  • SPWM



SPWM


N

2N

SPWM


SPWM


2


  • Tc


  • tDD DABA tAB tB

  • d


M 0 a <1r



SPWM

  • d


  • Tc /2MTc /2


PWMSPWMPWM816DSP


0.864

3

3


1203

3

m=1.2

20%m1.2


4. PWM

  • fc fr N N = fc / fr

    PWM


1

  • fc fr N

  • PWM1/4


  • fr N

  • fr N PWM


2

N

  • fr N

  • N 3


  • PWMN

  • fr fc

  • fr fc


u

u

u

u

u

rU

rV

rW

c

O

t

u

UN'

U

d

2

0

t

U

d

-

2

u

VN'

0

t

u

WN'

0

t

PWM


3

  • fr NN

  • fr N

  • fr N



4


VD

VT1

V

VD

1

1

3

+

U

VD

d

C

5

V

V

2

VT3

VT5

3

5

U

N'

N

V

VD

VD

W

V

VT4

VT6

V

4

6

+

V

U

VT2

4

d

2

6

C

2

VD

2

u

rU

u

rV

u

rW

u

c

6-19 PWM

5. PWM


urU

urV

uc

urW

u

O

w t

uUN

O

w t

uVN

Ud

2

O

w t

-Ud

2

uWN

O

w t

uUV

O

w t

Ud

2

uUN

3Ud

2

O

w t

6-20 PWMSPWM


6-20PWM

  • urUurVurWUVWuc

  • uUN uVN uWNUVWN

  • uUV+Ud- Ud

  • uUNN


PWM

PWMPWM



PWMCurrent Hysteresis Band PWM CHBPWM PWM PWM A6-22


V

VT1

1

HBC

VD1

U

d

2

*

ia

+

VD4

-

ia

U

V

VT4

d

4

2

i

L

1.

6-22A


2h

i*a ia ia hHBC ABC


PWM6-23

  • ia < i*a i*a - iah HBCV1iai*aHBCia

  • ia= i*a+ h ia= hHBCV1V4


VT4VD4VT4 HBC VT1VT1VD4 6-23


6-23


6-23ia Ia0.5 Ud

Ia-0.5 Ud


U

V

W

VT3

VT5

VT1

V

V

V

3

5

1

U

d

VT4

V

V

VT6

VT2

V

6

2

4

i

i

i

-

-

-

U

V

W

+

*

+

i

+

*

i

*

i

V

U

W

PWM

6-24 PWM


PWMSPWM



6-23

6-23


f


f



PWMPWM(SVPWM)

  • SVPWM


SPWM


PWMSVPWMSpace Vector PWM


1.

uA0 uB0 uC0

6-25


  • uA0 uB0 uC0120120

  • us 3/2


us 1 us

6-39

Is s


2.

6-40

us

Is

s


6-40

6-41

6-42


6-43

ms1


6-416-43

6-44


2

6-26


3.

1

PWM

-6-27


6-27 -


1808

  • 6

  • 2

    • VT1VT3VT5

    • VT2VT4VT6



6 /3 /3


+

id

VT1

iA

O

U

d

iC

iB

VT6

VT2

-

a

  • 100VT6VT1VT2

    UAO = Ud / 2

    UBO = UCO = - Ud /2


B

-uCO

u1

uAO

A

-uBO

C

b100

  • u1UdAX


B

u2

-uCO

uBO

uAO

A

C

c110

  • u1 /3110 u2u1 /3 /3


u4

u3

u5

u7u8

u2

u6

u1

d

/3

6 2

6-28d


2


1 /3 6-28d u16-296-41

6-29


/3 t u1 1 |u1| u16-29

6-45

6-46


6-47

6-48

6O6


u1 t /3 i 6-30

6-30


4. SVPWM


PWMPWM

[31]


11 12 13 144

6-31


6-32

T0 us

6-32


1

t1 t26-32

6-49


2

6-39

6-50

= 120


3

6-51

  • 6-27Ud0 Ud


6-52


6-526-49


  • t1 t2

6-53

6-54


T0 T0 t1+ t2 u7 u8 u7 u8

6-55

0


66Sector/3


6

6-33 6


  • SVPWM T0 us



T0 PWM

  • 6-32t1 t2t7 t8 4 u1u2u7 u8 100110111 000 4


127887211u12u2

100110111000000111110100


1278

81277218000100110111111110100000


T0

6-34


  • 424


SVPWM

1) 6 T0 T0 T0


2)

3)

4) PWM

5) SVPWMSPWM15%


PWMPWM

PWM,PWM

PWM


PWMPWM

1 1 22mPWMSelected Harmonics Elimination PWMSHEPWM


6-21 PWM


6-21PWMk

6-26

Ud

1PWMi


k6-26

6-21PWM1/41/4 m m


m-1

  • m=5 4 571113 6-26



1 2 1/4 2m = - 1 2m-1 ...



2PWM

PWMPWMPWM


3PWM

PWM

6


PWM

PWM

12

PWM

2 GTR


2KHz

PWM

PWM

PWMPWM


1PWM

PWM

PWM

PWM

2PWM

PWM3


PWM3

3PWM


4

PWM


PWM

BJT


10~20 IGBT2~5

PWM

1


VT1

VT3

VT5

VT4

VT6

VT2

VT1~VT6VD1~VD6

iA<0

iA

M3~

iA>0


1SPWM

2

3

ASPWM A

A

BCD


VD1

VD4

VT1A VT1

VT4


A

B

C

D

E

F


VD1VD4FAiA

SPWMiA0VT1

VD4A iA<0

VD1A VT4VT1


tdiA

iA

E

td iA

SPWM


2

E

T1

NSPWMN=ft/f r

ftf r


td


1SPWM


cf1

f1N


6.4

  • -



6.2-



-

  • IGBT IPM PWM--0.5~500KVA


1

2

  • 6-37-


K

UR

R0

UI

R0

Rb

R1

R1

Rb

M

3~

~

VTb

R2

R2

PWM

1.


2.

  • URPWMUIC


  • CK


  • C


6-38

  • 6-38


PWM


  • PWMPWMPWM81632DSPRISC


  • PWMPWMPWM

  • A/DCPU


  • U/f - U / f 6.2.2


  • U / f


  • PWM6-39


U / f

f

f *

u

u

t

f

PWM

6-39 PWM


0.


d / dt d / dt



1.


6.2.2 Eg/1 m6-12

6-12


6-59

s = s1


s s1

s Llr' << Rr'


6-61

6-61s mss



2.

6-61s6-12


Te

Temax

Tem

0

s

sm

smax

  • s Tes

  • TeTemaxssmax

6-40 m Te=f (s)


  • 6-12 dTe / ds = 0

6-62

6-63


s

6-64

Tes


mm Eg/1m

6-65


Eg/1Us/1 = Us

Eg/1- Us = f (1, Is)


Eg/1=Const.

Us /1=Const.

O

6-41 -


Us1 Is Eg/1 m


1 s sm Te s

2 Us = f (1 , Is) m


3.


PWM

ASR

M

3 ~

FBS

6-42


  • ASR s* 1*

6-66


  • 1 Is Us = f (1 , Is) Us* Us* 1*PWM


6-66 s* 1*1


ASR smTem



1 m m


2Us = f (1 , Is)


3 1 = s +


6.5



Ud

n

1.


  • Ud

  • n

    • Tm

    • Tl

    • Ts



2.

1


Us

(Is)

A1

A2

1

6-43


2


3



  • 1120

    2

    3

    4



B

uB

1

a

ub

b

ua

uA

A

uc

uC

C

c

6-44


ABC A abc a A


1.



uA, uB, uC, ua, ub, uc

iA, iB, iC, ia, ib, ic

A, B, C, a, b, c

Rs, Rr


p d /dt

6-67a

6-67b


2.

6-68a

6-68b


L66 LAA LBB LCCLaaLbbLcc


  • Lls

  • Llr

  • Lms

  • Lmr


Lms= Lmr


6-69

6-70


2

1


120

6-71

6-72


6-44

6-73

6-74

6-75

Lms


6-69~6-756-68a

6-76


6-77

6-78


6-79


6-68b6-67b

6-80

Ldi /dt(dL / d)i


3.

6-81


m = / np

6-82


6-816-826-77~6-79

6-83


6-83

6-84


6-796-84

6-85


i


4.

6-86

TL

J

D

K


D = 0 K = 0

6-87


5.

6-766-806-856-87

6-88


i

u

L

(R+Lp)-1

er

1( )

1

2( )

np

Jp

Te

TL


6-43

16-76


212 er Te L

3 12 1



1.

66


6-46 FA C F C A

F ddirect axis d ACqquadrature axis


q

ia

A

F

d

if

ic

C

6-46



q q

d pseudo - stationary coils


d



A B C F 1 A-B-C a


B

F

iB

1

B

A

A

iA

iC

C

C

1

a



i

2

F

1

i

b


b 9090 F

abba


F

1

T

M

M

it

im

T

3

c


c M T im it F

F


a b M T

M MT


abc iAiBiC ii imit


c MT


iAiBiC ii imit


2. --3/2

ABC 3/2


ABC A N3N2


B

N2i

N3iB

N2i

60o

60o

N3iA

A

N3iC

C



6-89


6-90


u,i,


E




/


2/3


6-89

6-91


C3/2

6-92


Y

iA + iB + iC = 0 iC = iA iB

6-926-93

6-94


6-95


3. 2s/2r

b c MT 2s/2r s r


1

T

Fs

i

M

itcos

it

im

imsin

i

it sin

imcos


ii imit1 Fs Fs is


MT Fs is 1 imit MT

M is i i imit


  • 2s/2r


6-96

6-97


6-96

(6-98)


(6-99)


1

T

is (Fs)

M

it

s

im

4. /K/P

isM s imit is s/K/P


6-100

6-101


s 0~ 90tans 0 ~ s


6-102

6-1026-101 s


6.6.2ABC


dq


q

Fs

dqs

B

d

s

A

C

d A s ps = dqs d q dqr dq


6-67a6-68a 6-85 3/2 C2s/2r dq


3/2

C2s/2r

dq

ABC


6-98dA


ABC

dq0

A


1

dqo

dA

d



dq0



dq0


dq


1

dq

6-103a

6-103b


dq

dq

dq


3/2dqdqABC 66


q

qs

usq

dqs

isq

urq

qr

dr

ds

irq

d

ird

isd

usd

urd

  • dq

6-50 dq


2

A

A


ABCA

dq0


dq0

BC


6-104


6-103b6-104 dq

6-105


6-1056-67a462

6-105 R Lp


6-106a



6-106a

6-106b


6.6.2ABC L 4 4 4


3

ABCdqo

6-85

dq0dq


3

dq

6-107

6-87


6-103a6-1046-1056-1076-86dqABC


6-1046-105 dq 6-516-51a d6-51b q4


dqssq

dqrrq

Llr

Lls

Rr

Rs

isd

ird

urd

usd

psd

Lm

prd

dqssd

dqrrd

Llr

Lls

Rr

Rs

isq

irq

urq

usq

psq

Lm

prq

ad bq

dq


2.

dqs= 0 dqr= - dq 6-105

6-108


6-103a

6-109


C2s/2r


6-107

6-110

6-108~6-110 KronTwo Axis Primitive Machine


3.

dq dqs 1 dq dqr = 1 - = s 6-105


6-111


ABCdq


4

dqd

d06-111


dq


dq


6.6.441559 4 isd isq ird irq 4 sd sq rd rq


  • isd isq rd rq

  • isd isq sd sq


1.r is

6-103bdq

6-103b


6-104

6-104


dqs= 1 dqr= 1- = s urd = urq = 0

6-112


6-103b34


6-107

6-113


6-103b6-112 ird irqsd sq6-1136-87

6-114


6-115

6-116

6-117


6-118


6-114~6-118

6-119

6-120


2.s is

6-103b6-112 ird irqrd rq

6-121

6-122


6-123

6-124


6-125

6-126

6-127


6.6



6.6.3 iA iBiC/ ii im it


r MimT it


ABC 3/2 im it


i

it1

iA

A

iB

3/2

VR

B

i

iC

im1

C

6-52

3/2/; VR;

MA


Vector Control System


~

iA

i*A

i*1

im1

i*m1

i1

iB

i*B

i*t1

VR-1

2/3

3/2

VR

i1

i*1

iC

i*C

+

it1

1

6-53


VR-1VR2/33/26-53


~

iA

i*A

i*1

im1

i*m1

i1

iB

i*B

i*t1

VR-1

2/3

3/2

VR

i1

i*1

iC

i*C

+

it1

1



  • /dq


d MMagnetization q 90 TTorque

MT Field Orientation


6-128


6-113

mtdq

6-129

6-130


6-131

6-132

6-133

6-134


6-132

6-135


6-131

6-136

6-137


  • 6-1366-137

  • 6-136r ism ismr


6-1366-1376-1356-1296-546-52 r ism ist rTe ist r


3/2

VR

6-54


6-53ARASRr 6-55

r Te


6-55


ASRr r rARASR


r 6-55^


r




1.

3/2 is is6-10934

6-138

6-139


6-138a

6-139b

6-108 34 ur=ur=0



6-140

6-141

6-1406-141r rr


is

r

1

1

+

Lm

Trp+1

Trp+1

-

Tr

r

+

is

Lm

+

6-56


r r


2.

iA iBiC3/2 is is MT ismist6-1366-135 r s s 1


Sin

Cos

s

1

ist

1

is

p

iA

+

+

Tr

iB

3/2

VR

Lm

r

ism

is

iC

Lm

Tr p+1

6-57


Rr TrLm Lr Tr




1


G


1

2GG



482-484


482~484485~487


y

489491




6-55r r r 6.7.2r


  • CHBPWM6-59a

  • PWM6-59b


iA

i*A

A

i*B

B

iB

C

i*C

iC

1CHBPWM

6-59a


iA

i*A

u*A

1ACR

A

i*B

u*B

B

PWM

2ACR

iB

C

i*C

u*C

3ACR

iC

2PWM

6-59b


3 PWM

CHBPWM


ist

npLm

Lr

is

r

cos

sin

Te

T*e

*

i*sA

ASR

ATR

VR-1

2/3

+

+

TA

i*st

i*s

i*sB

M

3~

i*sC

r

is

+

AR

*r

i*sm

i*s

PWM

6-60


  • ASR


Tr Lm

6-135


6-61--kWPWM


TA

is

*

i*s

+

i*st

ASR

ACR

UR

+

K/P

Tr p+1

*r

Lm

*s

i*sm

Ld

+

1

*s

1

Lm

CSI

+

+

p

+s

+

Tr

TG

M

TG

3~

6-61


1ASR

i*st*s


r


2 i*sm*r 6-137

Tr p + 1

ism


3 i*smi*st/K/P i*s *sACR90


4 *s6-135


6.7

  • DTC ( Direct Torque Control)


1

2


0900


100t1

t2

t1t2


100

s6

s5

110

101

s4

s1

000

111

t2

010

001

s2

s3

100

011



3

1

2

101


120102

a

100

4

110

3

101

5

000

111

101

2

001

6

010

1

b

c

011


102

A

s1

s2

s4

s5

s6

s3

B

C

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

D


103

102B

S102C

D

100


103

100

=

=

100

=

123456 s1,s2,,s6P


101

,165432

N

=

=

101

=


1104

AZS

AMC

AZS

TQ

ASR

ATR

PN

DMC

DMC

ASR

ASS

Ui

ATR

AMC

104


DMC

101

DMC DMC


AMC

105


ATR

TQ

PN

105

ATR1TQ2PN


- < - > TQ=1PN=0ASSDMC

- > - < TQ=0PN=1ASS


- < TQ=1PN=1

ASSDMC

- > TQ=0

PN=0

TQPN



011

S1


010

106

106


> - > =0

< - <- =1

107


N

PN=1

Y

Y

N

TQ=1

TQ=1

Y

N

N

N

Y

Y

107


1

2

3

4


4


U1U2U3

U4U5U6

108

397


108



397

U1U6,

109

1 (a)


2

(b)

3 +U3 -U4

(a)

(b)

109


(1)U3U4


(2)

U1

U6

(3)U1U6

110

(a)(b)


110

(a)

(b)

t

+


110(a) +

U3U4

U3110(b)t0,t1

t1U4t2


t2

+U3U4

(b)


-U1U6


VCDTCVC

1- PWM SVPWM


2VC-


3

4


(DTC)(VC)


-DTC

  • -


1.

DTC 6-1086-109


6-146

6-147

6-63


6-63


30%


399

400


D

D

i-n3-64

B

A

C

C

A

B


30%



2.

6-110

6-109


6-110

6-148

DTC6-64


6-64


DTC

1-

2


DTC


DTCVC


VC Te rr


DTC

DTC Te s -

6-1


6-1


[] DTC

6-1DTCVC


6.8

d-q

d


424q423


dq


q


d


c

4-30

431432



1

2


6.9

1

2


U

f

220Vf=50HZ) =1Wb

1Wb

1Wb220V,


3

CSIVSICSIVSI


CSI

4

5



1



D


A

B

PI1

PI2

PI3

C


1


PI

E

PI3

0<A<B,=1/A,


KT=0.5=0.707


PI3

ui

q

M3~

2


A

1/(Tfs+1)

PI2

1/(Tfs+1)

442

PI


H

PI2


0.707,KTf=0.5

4-111

d


PI2

ui

4-111

M3~


3


1/(Tws+1)

PI1

1/(Tws+1)


PI1


PI


PI1

PI2

VSI

F(w)

PI3

abc

M3~


6.10

1

2

3

4


PI

1


411041114112


2

4116


4119


1

2

3

2PI


PI

41264125


4128 4127 =0

PI


q


PI

PI


1


054052


MT




055


ASR

PG


058MT




T


0532~0534T

0532


n


0514

0515

0535


1

VFVV


2


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