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Freight and the City: An Overview of Urban Freight Distribution and City Logistics. Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Dept. of Economics & Geography Hofstra University Hempstead, NY http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/jean-paul_rodrigue/. Urban Freight Transportation: The Realm of the “Last Mile”.

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Freight and the city an overview of urban freight distribution and city logistics

Freight and the City: An Overview of Urban Freight Distribution and City Logistics

Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue

Dept. of Economics & Geography

Hofstra University

Hempstead, NY

http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/jean-paul_rodrigue/


Urban freight transportation the realm of the last mile
Urban Freight Transportation: The Realm of the “Last Mile”

  • Contemporary Urbanization

  • A New Environment for Freight Distribution

  • City Logistics and Urban Freight Distribution


Contradictions between passengers and freight transport
Contradictions between Passengers and Freight Transport Mile”

Urban Transportation

Commuting

Shopping

Recreation

Commodity Chains

Intensity

Freight

Trade

Energy & Raw Materials

Waste disposal

Local distribution

Business

TourismMigration

Passengers

Distance



Freight and the city
Freight and the City Contradictions

  • For freight, cities have three major dimensions

    • Cities are zones of production:

      • Industrial location.

    • Cities are transport nodes:

      • Accumulation of transport terminals.

      • Intermediary locations.

    • Cities are zones of consumption:

      • Problem of urban distribution.

  • Dislocation between those functions

    • Notably between production, distribution and consumption.

    • Brought by globalization, global production networks and efficient freight transport systems (increasingly by logistics).


World cities
World Cities Contradictions

Moscow

Toronto

San Francisco

Seoul

Chicago

New York

Tokyo

Los Angeles

Hong Kong

Mexico City

Singapore

London

Frankfurt

Brussels

Geneva

Paris

1st tier

Sao Paulo

Milan

Sydney

2nd tier

Madrid

3rd tier




Changes in the urban spatial structure
Changes in the Urban Spatial Structure Contradictions

Multi-Nodal

Nodal

Core activities

Peripheral activities

Central area

Central activities

Major transport axis


I Contradictions

II

Road

Highway

Activity center

Transit line

IV

III


Possible urban movement patterns
Possible Urban Movement Patterns Contradictions

Organized

Primary flow

Secondary flow

Disorganized

Monocentric

Polycentric


Components of the transportation land use system
Components of the Transportation / Land Use System Contradictions

  • Economic base theory

  • Location theory

  • Traffic generation and attraction models

Land Use

  • Spatial interaction models

  • Distance decay parameters

  • Modal split

Spatial Interactions

  • Traffic assignment models

  • Transport capacity

Transportation Network


Urban transport assets versus liabilities

Assets (Freight Transport) Contradictions

Privately owned (profit motivated).

Relatively low entry costs (wages and rates subject to market forces).

Value added function (trade distance for cost).

Support industrial, manufacturing and commercial activities.

Liabilities (Public Transit)

Publicly owned (politically motivated).

Little or no competition permitted (wages and fares regulated).

Social function / “public service” (provides accessibility and social equity).

Limited relationships with economic activities.

Urban Transport: Assets versus Liabilities


Globalization commodification and urbanization
Globalization, Commodification and Urbanization Contradictions

  • Longer supply chains

    • International division of the production.

    • Fragmentation of production, distribution and consumption.

  • International trade

    • Imbalanced freight flows.

  • Higher levels of consumption

    • Growing incomes (challenged)

    • Debt and equity extraction.


From push to pull logistics
From Push to Pull Logistics Contradictions

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Freight flow

Manufacturer

Manufacturer

3PL

Distributor

Distributor

Customer

Returns / Recycling

Point-of-sale data

Customer

Push

Pull


Logistics and e commerce
Logistics and E-commerce Contradictions

Supply chain

Supply chain

Warehousing

E-Retailer

Retailer

Warehousing

E-Logistics

Traditional Logistics

Customers

Customers


City logistics and urban freight distribution
City Logistics and Urban Freight Distribution Contradictions

  • City Logistics

    • Relatively new field.

    • “The process for totally optimizing the logistics and transport activities by private companies in urban areas while considering the traffic environment, the traffic congestion and energy consumption within the framework of a market economy.”

    • Means to achieve freight distribution in urban areas.

    • Improve:

      • Efficiency of urban freight transportation.

      • Reduce traffic congestion.

      • Mitigate environmental impacts.


City logistics
City Logistics Contradictions

Urban Terminal

DC


Freight corridors freight clusters
Freight Corridors & Freight Clusters Contradictions

  • Geographical consequences

    • Migrating to more affordable locations in the periphery.

    • Growth in tons-km.

    • Competition between passengers (commuters) and freight traffic.

  • Freight corridors

    • Expands the sphere of distribution.

    • Providing an axis along which distribution centers can reliably service many locations along the corridor.

  • Emergence of freight clusters

    • Functionally unrelated distribution facilities.

    • Often located in small intermediary locations.

DC




Cross docking distribution center
Cross-Docking Distribution Center Contradictions

Before Cross-Docking

Distribution Center

Suppliers

Suppliers

LTL

Customers

Receiving

Sorting

After Cross-Docking

Shipping

TL

Cross-Docking DC

TL

Customers


The last mile urban transport problem
The “Last Mile” Urban Transport Problem Contradictions

  • The “last mile” problem

    • Common issue in logistics.

    • More time-based than cost-based problem.

    • Components:

      • Delivery time (e.g. duration, possibility to fix delivery date);

      • Reliability of delivery (e.g. availability of goods, order handling time);

      • Flexibility of delivery (e.g. delivery date, delivery address);

      • Quality of delivery (e.g. accurate delivery, condition of delivered goods).

    • Unattended delivery problem:

      • Mainly apply to parcel deliveries.

      • Contradiction between working schedules and delivery schedules.

      • Made worse by the growth of two income families.




Toll bridges and roads new york metropolitan area 1000s of vehicles per day
Toll Bridges and Roads, New York Metropolitan Area (1000s of vehicles per day)

Hudson River

Long Island Sound

GWB

300

New Jersey

TNB

Bronx

110

100

LT

100

Manhattan

WSB

Garden State Parkway

TBB

125

80

100

QMT

Long Island

HT

Queens

60

BBT

20

20

75

BYB

CBB

Brooklyn

GTB

210

NJ Turnpike

VZB

20

Staten Island

MPB

Lower New York Bay

75

Raritan Bay

OCB



Truck freight corridors
Truck Freight Corridors vehicles per day)

New York

New Jersey

TZB

Connecticut

8.4

23.2

7.8

7.4

GWB

Bronx

8.6

5.2

TBB

TNB

LT

5.7

WSB

Manhattan

LGA

Long Island

QMT

HT

Queens

EWR

BBT

4.2

1.9

GTB

BYB

6.4

Brooklyn

JFK

VZB

Staten Island

8.4

1.5

Major Crossing

OCB

1,000 of Trucks per Day (2000)

4.8

2.0

About 70 million truck crossings per year



Challenges to urban freight distribution
Challenges to Urban Freight Distribution vehicles per day)

  • Multimodal Integration of Freight Transportation

    • Problem of modal dependence (80% trucking).

    • Specialization of modes, modal shift and freight diversion.

  • Entropy and Energy

    • Maintaining the cohesion and productivity of freight distribution.

    • Growing disorder and energy costs.

  • Urban/Suburban Supply Chains

    • Coping with the “last mile”.

    • Difficulties to maintain just-in-time and timely supply.

    • High distribution costs.

    • Adaptation of modes and delivery times.


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