X-RAY DIFFRACTION – Bruxer AXS, D8 Advance. The basic version i.e. the x-ray powder diffraction is an analytical technique widely used to identify the crystalline phases contained in various materials.
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The basic version i.e. the x-ray powder diffraction is an analytical technique widely used to identify the crystalline phases contained in various materials.
It is mainly adopted for research and quality control and ca be used alone or with other techniques to identify the constituents of simple and complex mixtures in various areas, such as: stone processing industry; production of binders; control formulations for mortar, plaster, stucco; brick production; control of metallic and non-metallic minerals, etc.
Images relating to examples of application of the XRD technique
Simple XRD spectrum with qualitative indication of present phases
View of instrument and the management console
X-ray Spectrum with quantitative indication of phase processing with Rietveld method
The elemental chemical analysis using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a technique that allows elemental analysis (in general, from sodium to uranium) for a wide range of materials with a sufficient level of accuracy and precision, especially for high concentrations.
The strength of this kind of analysis is the capability to analyze both conductive materials (metals) and non-conductive materials (oxides, glass, ceramics, plastics, cement, etc.), and also liquids (oil, water, hydrocarbons, etc.). The analysis can be used for process control and for research in various fields, in particular in the environmental fields.
Images relating to examples of application of XRF technique
Tablets for fluorescence measurements
Report of a typical XRF analysis
Desk instrument for X-ray
Stereomicroscope is commonly used to make observations on sections allowing to obtain detailed information about morphology, nature and composition of various layers of fragments under investigation, such as: shape of grains; type of binder; presence of layers of pigment; superficial alteration.
Optical microscope with polarized light (Olympus BX51). It is used for studing thin sections which detailed examination, allowing to obtain information about nature of clasts and matrix which constitute respectively the aggregate and the binder of various materials (stone, mortar, plaster, stucco, etc.). It is also possible to carry out studies on decay associated with reactions such as alkali-aggregate processes and sulphation black crusts.
Images relating to examples of application of optical microscopy (OM)
Polished section of a cocciopesto mortar
Thin section processed by computer
Desk with transmitted optical microscope with polarized light, transmitted biologicmicroscopr, stereo-binocular microscope
This technique allows a recognition and a simultaneous determination of one or more cations or anions in aqueous solution. It is based on the separation of ions through ion exchange columns, thanks to the different affinities of analytes in solution for eluent phase and stationary phase, contained in a column chromatographic. The technique is mainly used to determine soluble salts which are the typical constituents of salt efflorescence.
Images relating to examples of application of ion chromatography
Chromatogram of anions
Chromatogram of cation
The technique allows monitoring the behaviour of a substance under controlled regime of temperature increase.
It is generally used to identify transformations of chemical and physical nature of a material, during a thermal treatment. Operating under standards, the most common and basic information that can be derived include, for example: quantification of loss in weight; determination of decomposition temperature of a chemical; temperature deidrossilation of substances containing water in its structure, and everything related to reactions involving structural changes in weight.
Images relating to examples of application of thermal analysis (TA)
Stacking multiple thermograms
Images relating to examples of application of treatment cycles
It is used for physical and environmental testing on any material. The instrument allows to evaluate the behaviour of thermo-shrinkage of a given material in the temperature range -40 to +180 °C and relative humidity (RH) +20 to +95%. If needed, it can be used either for maturation of standardized samples that will undergo mechanical tests, or for freeze-thaw cycling of stones.
Performance of a pre-set cycle of treatment
Climate chamber for
physical and environmental testing
Static furnace and rotary furnace are chambers for controlled thermal treatments of various products under static and dynamic standard from room temperature up to 1600 °C and 1100 °C respectively.
Jaw mill and centrifugal mill with spheresare grinding machines that reduce to powder various materials that have to undergo further processing for powder production or for laboratory analysis.Electro-mechanical-sieving machine produces a dry sieve of a pool to derive the dissolved fraction useful in composition of particle size distribution curve.
Images relating to examples of application
of treatment cycles
Fractions separated using series of standard sieves
Desk with instruments for physical-mechanical treatments
Images relating to examples of application
of this machine
Load testmachine. The instrument is set up for flexion and compression rupture tests for normalized elements with size 4.0 x4,0x16cm. The maximum load is 300kN. It is equipped with a dual channel with high sensitivity to appreciate different values of tensile strength from various tens of kN for elements made of concrete to single digits for elements made of lime and hydraulic lime.
Typical stress-strain curve of an element
tested in compression.
Photo of an element, realized with gypsum, broken under compression
In support of a laboratory, focused on building materials and particularly mortars based on inorganic binders, it is necessary a range of equipments, part of which are represented by an automatic mixer, a motorized flow table, an automatic Vicat needle, a Blaine permeabilimeter, a Le Chatelier volumeter. The aim is to characterize, under the current legislation, various materials to mix and final products of compositions.
Water heating bath
Motorized flow table