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The Edaphosauridae :. Abraham Miranda CSUSB 3.5.09. Edaphosauridae. Barrel bodied Small heads Originally lumped together, the subclass Edaphosauria include Edaphosauridae Casea Lupeosauridae Nitrosauridae

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the edaphosauridae
The Edaphosauridae:

Abraham Miranda

CSUSB

3.5.09

edaphosauridae
Edaphosauridae
  • Barrel bodied
  • Small heads
  • Originally lumped together, the subclass Edaphosauria include
    • Edaphosauridae
    • Casea
    • Lupeosauridae
    • Nitrosauridae
  • Romer appeared to have decided Edaphosaurus should have their own subclass, but he was overruled
  • Romer compared the Edaphosaurus to Casea because of their pelycosaur similarities
commonalitys of the edaphosauridae
Commonalitys of the Edaphosauridae
  • Projection off the frontal bone, creating a large lappet
  • Quadratojugal not connected to the subtemporal bar
  • Lacrimal bone reaches from the orbits to the naris
  • A narrow skull table
  • Have a supraorbial brow or shelf created from the prefrontal, frontal and post frontal bones
the edaphosaurid head
The Edaphosaurid head
  • Postorbital process reduced
  • No connection with the postorbital bone and supratemporal bone
  • Temporal bar is created from the jugal and squamosal bones
  • Quadratojugal jugal is reduced
back of the head occiput
Back of the head- Occiput
  • Supraoccipital is smaller compared to sphenacodonts
jaw and tooth
Jaw and Tooth
  • Articulation of the jaw joint is below the rows of teeth
  • Dentary bone has a big coronid process
  • The prearticular bone is rotated to fit under the pterygoid process of articular bone
  • All marginal teeth slightly enlarged at distal portions
the axial skeleton and the sail
The Axial skeleton and the sail
  • Sail: Formed by the neuro spinous processes of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae
  • Neural spines are circular at distal ends
  • Neural spines are laterally compressed at proximal ends
  • Cervical neural spines bend anterioly
  • Posterior neural spines bend posteriorly
  • Neural spine tubercles paired at the proximal ends
the neurospine process sail
The Neurospine process Sail
  • Neural spines enlongated on presacral bones
    • Short transverse tubercles
  • Distal neural spines loose dual cylinder structure
    • Stolen from Adam Huttenlocker
axial and appendicular skeleton
Axial and Appendicular skeleton
  • Limbs are short
  • All Edaphosaurs have a curve to ribs
  • Tubercular head of ribs are small ridged
ianthasaurus15
Ianthasaurus
  • Oldest and most primitive of the Edaphosauridae
  • Two well-preserved specimens found in Garnett, Kansas
  • First found in the Upper Pennsylvanian Rock Lake Shale of the Stanton formation.
  • A stream valley in which there was a slow transgression of flood waters.
  • First unearthed by P.E. Peabody in 1957, and thought to be a Dimetrodon, Reisz in 1982 confirmed this unknown specimen as an edaphosaur
  • Maintained edaphosaur spines, but did not really fit in with the rest of the genus, so a new genus was erected: Ianthasaurus
  • Only known species of Ianthasaurus:

Ianthasaurushardestii

  • Insectivore
ianthasaurus hardestii
Ianthasaurushardestii
  • Pre and Postfrontal bones articulate to the Parietal
  • Reduced quadratojugal from the temporal bar
  • Small temporal fenestra
  • Long and low maxilla
tooth and jaw
Tooth and jaw
  • 27-29 teeth
  • Enlongate maxilla
  • Caniniform teeth
  • Sharp and recurved posteriorly dentition
  • Homodont dentition
  • No toothplates
  • Palatine teeth infer insectivory
cervical vertebrae
Cervical Vertebrae
  • Centrum lengths of the Cervical vertebrae are greated than the rest of the presacral vertebrae
  • Neural spines running of the cervical vertebrae are thicker and more robust
dorsal vertebrae with ribs
Dorsal Vertebrae with ribs
  • Transverse processes of the vertebrae are short
  • Ribs are not strongly curved like the rest of the edaphosaurs
  • Longest neural spine is at vertebrae 17
lumbar vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae
  • 29 Presacral vertebrae
  • Lack tubercles on the neural spines
neural spine sail
Neural Spine Sail
  • Neural spine sail is the smallest of the Edaphosauridae
  • No more than 5 tubercles on neural spines
  • 27 Neural spines in the sail
  • No central elements in all neural spines
  • Neural spines lean forward in cervical region and rearward in the lumbar region
  • Neural spines begin at third cervical vertebrae on down to the second to last lumbar vertebrae
  • Measurements of the centra impossible to crush and bad preparation
  • Proximal portions of the neural spines are laterally compressed
  • Neural spines are subcircular at the basal tubercle
  • Considered a tool for heat exchange over a sexual dimorphism or “solar collector”
appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Right scapulocorocoid
  • Left pelvis
  • Partial manus
  • Left humerous
  • Only 2 usable Ianthasaurus have been recovered
scapula corocoid humerous
Scapula, corocoid, Humerous
  • Medial view: the scapular and anterior corocoid is exposed.
  • Posterior corocoid is unavalible
  • Scapula and corocoid are separated by nature or by degradation along suture contact
  • Gleniod is too poorly preserved
  • Supragleniod foramen exist?
  • At the anterior margin of scapular blade, a notch is seen in many pelcosaurs
  • Function?
  • Anterior corocoid expanded dorsoventrally and with a convex shape.
  • Function?
the humerus
The Humerus
  • Humerus badly preserved and featureless
  • Distal end of humerous is narrow and no supinator process seen
  • Diaphysis is almost perfectly round in cross section
  • No evidence of the epiphyses being twisted about the bone
manus
Manus
  • Identified as the ulnare, intermedium medial and lateral centrale
  • Nothing can be offered, not enough.
left pelvis
Left Pelvis
  • Illuim is well-developed with a blade-like processes extending posteriorly
  • The anterodorsal process is smaller than the posteriordorsal process
pelvis ribs
Pelvis,Ribs
  • Ribs are slighly curved with a smooth tubercular bump
  • Complete ilium has been found
  • Pubis and ischium have been lost
  • Iliac blade is extended posteriorly like other primitive pelycosaurs
  • Obturator foramen on posterior edge , but posterior boarder is opened
  • Indicates that this specimen is immature
  • Ischium retains the structure of other early pelycosaurs
  • Pubis and ischium are narrowly connected below the acetabulum
glaucosaurus
Glaucosaurus
  • Lived in the Lower Permian of North-Central Texas
  • Represented by a single skull
  • Shares 5 synapomorphies with Edaphosaurs
glaucosaurus30
Glaucosaurus

What is G?

G= 5 reasons

5 reasons to be an edaphosaur
5 Reasons to be an Edaphosaur
  • Transverse flange of pterygiod is missing
5 reasons to be an edaphosaur33
5 Reasons to be an Edaphosaur
  • No caniniform teeth
  • No caniniform region
  • Premaxillary and maxillary teeth identical
edaphosaurus
Edaphosaurus
  • 8 species currently recognized
  • Edaphosaurus
    • E. boanerges
    • E. cruciger- largest sail
    • E. pogonias
    • E. novomexicanus
    • E. colohistion
    • E. credneri
    • E. raymondi
recovered edaphosaur remains
Recovered Edaphosaur Remains
  • Most species are described by 1 or 2 badly preserved skulls
  • Many specimens found in the Geraldine Bonebed in Archer County, Texas
  • Larger barrel shaped body over Ianthasaurus
edaphosaurus boanerges and friends
Edaphosaurus boanerges and friends
  • Dozens of specimens found in North-Central Texas
  • Many complete skulls
  • No so many complete skeletons
  • Used as the model for all Edaphosaurs
skull information
Skull information
  • Reduced skull size
  • Head is the size of 5 dorsal centra
  • Not as enlongate as the Ianthasaurus
  • Process of the postorbital is short, not extending to the parietal foramen
  • Nasal bone is ¾ the size of the frontal
  • Subtemporal bar is displaced superiorly
  • Temporal fenestra is enlarged anteriorly and posteriorly
slide41

Supraorbital shelf is wide and deep concealing the orbits

  • Lacrimal bone is thin at the maxillae and progressively thickens posteriorly suggesting it carries some kind of load and transfers it to the prefrontal
  • Prefrontal and lacrimal form a buttress attachment for reinforcement
  • The nasal bone has a “scarred shelf” and sutures that lock into the prefrontal bone as well as thicken around the orbit.
  • Suggests that carries load for feeding
edaphosaurs
Edaphosaurs
  • Premaxilla is enlongated in cross section
  • Premaxilla has 5 teeth, but none have survived to determine dimensions
  • The maxilla accomodates
  • 18-21 teeth
  • No Caniniform teeth
  • No Caniniform region
  • No pterygiod flange
  • All Homodont/isodonty dentition
ventral and medial aspects
Ventral and medial aspects
  • Jaw is suspended way below the upper tooth row
  • Well developed tooth plates on palate and mandible
  • Densely packet teeth
  • Tooth plates form on the palate and inner aspect of the mandible
  • Palatal plate consists of the pterygoidectopterygiod, and palatine
ventral and medial aspects44
Ventral and medial aspects
  • Mandibular tooth plate is formed by the coroniod, posterior coroniod, and prearticular bones
  • Denticulated plate is formed by the ant coroniod, coroniod and prearticular bones
  • 120-150 teeth per palatal bone plate
  • Maxilla bone is twisted out laterally
  • Dentary bone is twisted in medially
  • Purpose?
edaphosaur mandibles
Edaphosaur mandibles
  • Massive tooth plate found on the mandible, bigger than on the maxilla/palate
  • Deeply cut through mandibularsymphysis
  • Jaw articulation denoted propalinal or front to back movement of jaws
  • Maxillary teeth progressively angle backwards as you go to the dentary bone
edaphosaur teeth
Edaphosaur Teeth
  • Reduced homodont dentition
  • Isodonty in the marginal teeth cropped plant matter
  • Teeth are distally swollen
  • Fine serrated tips curving backwards
  • Palatal and mandibular tooth plates served as primary grinders of plant matter
  • Posterior maxillae and dentary teeth assisted with minor grinding
occipital view of the skull
Occipital view of the skull
  • Supraoccipital has little lateral exposure
  • Tabular bones are thick towards the parietal, but they are thin and suture into paraocciptal bones
  • Postorbital is a slender sigmiodal bone.

.

cervical vertebrae48
Cervical Vertebrae
  • Cervical vertebrae are extremely short compared to the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae
  • Ianthasaurus has longer centra on their cervical vertebrae
  • Contain neural spines that are enlongated with longitudinal ridges at the sides of the spines
dorsal vertebrae
Dorsal Vertebrae
  • Anterior to mid dorsal neural spines are tall and pointed. E. boanerges has the second longest neural spines
  • Neural spines are tall and pointed with a slight posterior angulations
  • Multiple lateral tubercules that are arranged laterally across the neural spines
sacral and caudal vertebrae
Sacral and Caudal Vertebrae
  • Neural spine tips of sacral and caudal vertebrae are roughened or crenulated like a castle
  • They have longitudianal ridges that are rough

Anterior view w/ R rib

clavicle and shoulder
Clavicle and Shoulder
  • Ventrally hypertropied clavicle
  • A heavy scapular blade
  • A reinforced or
  • Butressedsupragleniodfossa
  • Increased coracoid processes
neuro spinal process sail
Neuro spinal process (sail)
  • Anterior neural spines neural spines lean forward, lean posteriorly towards lumbar neural spines.
slide53
Ribs
  • Dorsal ribs are strongly curved to the midline
  • Tuberculae are well developed and slightly roughened
pelvis
Pelvis
  • Ilium: anterodorsal process are in equal size of the posterodorsal process.
special case e raymondi
Special case: E. raymondi
  • First fragments recovered by P.E. Raymond in Pitcairn,Pennsylvania in 1908
  • Romer and Price wanted to keep this sample as E. mirabilis, but renamed it due to geopgraphic incompatibilies (1940)
  • Permian sample
  • Only small spine fragment with some tubercles found
is it really its own species
Is it really its own species?
  • 12mm long
  • Oval in cross-section
  • Anterior and posterior sides cannot be dicerned
  • Little of lateral tubercle survives
  • Unknown mature sample
  • Declared a novum vanum
lupeosaurus tenative edaphosaur
Lupeosaurus (tenative Edaphosaur)
  • Early Permian pelycosaur found in the Wichita deposits of Texas
  • First thought by Romer or intermediate betweeen Edaphosaurus and Dimetrodon
  • Lack of cranial fossils
  • Lack of Ianthasaurus-like shoulder girdle, nothing to compare it to.
cervical vertebrae59
Cervical Vertebrae
  • Only 3 survived
  • Centrum is 30mm long
  • Have a mid ventral keel
  • The centra have a diamond shape when cut transversly
  • This aspect is considered to be conserved through out the vertebral column
  • Anterior and posterior articular faces have “heavy lips”
  • Transverse processes are nearly identical to Edaphosaurus
sacral vertebrae
Sacral Vertebrae
  • Sacral vertebrae have been recovered , but the number is unknown
  • Considered robust and shorter, but the anterolateral aspect is dominated by the articulation to the ribs
all vertebrae
All Vertebrae
  • NO tubercles
  • Elevated transverse processes across the vertebral column
  • Zygapophyses are elevated
  • The centrum have a projecting keel
neural spines
Neural spines
  • Lacked trabecular crossbars in neural spines
  • Mid-Dorsal Neural spine end missing
  • Neural spines have a forward tilt of 20 degrees at the base
  • Neural spines appear triangular at the base
  • 8 spines have been recovered, considered to belong to the cervical vertebrae
  • Tall and narrow, no lateral depressions or modifications
  • Subcircular in cross-section
mid dorsal vs posterior neuro spinal processes
Mid-dorsal vs. Posterior neuro spinal processes
  • Mid Dorsal neural spines extend vertically , or almost perpendicular to level of the vertebral column
  • Posteriodorsalneurospinous processes lean posterior of the animal
  • Maintain a similar orientation to that of Ianthasaurus
clavicle
Clavicle
  • Expanded ventral aspect
  • Slightly bigger than the range of the edaphosaur clavicle
  • Anteromedial aspect is thick but the anterodorsal aspect is missing. Maybe some of clavicle is missing!
scapulocoracoid
Scapulocoracoid
  • Dorsal edge of scapula preserved
  • Scapula blade could be larger and longer than any previous recorded pelycosaur!
  • Probably smooth surfaced
  • Contains a broad convex fossa on medial side for large subcorocoid muscle
  • Supragleniod contains lots of bone
  • Gleniodfossa is marginally preserved, hard to analyze
ending findings
Ending findings
  • An enlarged sail seems to be primitive, with advanced organisms down regulating the sail size.
  • Conversion from omnivorous to plant eater with advancing species
  • Edaphosaurs and Ianthasaurs clearly vary
    • Look for key features
    • Caniniformvs non-caniniform
    • Prefrontal transverse process
    • Smooth or roughened neural spines
  • Glaucosaurs: an interesting intermediate
  • Lupeosaurs are tenativeedaphosaurs, but their vertebral and spinous process features confirm their standing as Edaphosaurs
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