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The Effects of Chlorine on Harmful Bacteria. Group 1-010 Leow Shawn Tao (1A413, Leader), Sow Jeng Wei (1O220), Justin Soh (1P111), Soh Yee Kiat (1P127). Overview Materials and Methodology Results and Discussion Conclusion. Contents.

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The effects of chlorine on harmful bacteria

The Effects of Chlorine on Harmful Bacteria

Group 1-010

Leow Shawn Tao (1A413, Leader), Sow Jeng Wei (1O220), Justin Soh (1P111), Soh Yee Kiat (1P127)


Contents

  • Overview

  • Materials and Methodology

  • Results and Discussion

  • Conclusion

Contents


Rationale

Rationale




Variables
Variables bacteria.


Materials

  • Agar Plates bacteria.

  • Sterile Swabs

  • Chlorine Water (Collected from HCI swimming pool)

  • Pipette & Micropipette

  • Centrifuge Tubes

  • Nutrient Agar & Nutrient Broth

  • Measuring Cylinder

  • De-ionized water

  • E.coli

Materials


Materials1
Materials bacteria.


Methodology

METHODOLOGY bacteria.


Day 1

DAY 1 bacteria.

Pre-Experimental Procedures


Water collection

Water Collection


Broth and agar preparation

Broth and Agar Preparation


Broth and agar
Broth and Agar 250ml of de-ionized water.


Day 2

DAY 2 250ml of de-ionized water.

Preparation


Synthesis and dilution of silver nanoparticles

  • 1. 250ml of de-ionized water.30ml of sodium Borohydride is poured into a small beaker. This small beaker is then placed into a larger beaker. Ice is placed into this larger beaker. Stir for 20 minutes.

  • 2. 2ml of silver nitrate is then dropped into the sodium Borohydride. 1.28g of polyvinyl alcohol is then added into the mixture and heating is carried out.

Synthesis and Dilution of Silver Nanoparticles


Agar spreading

Agar Spreading


Overnight culture

Overnight Culture


Day 3

DAY 3 centrifuge tubes each.

Experimentation


Dilution

  • 1. Our aim was to reach 1 x 10-⁶ of bacterial dilution. We filled 6 centrifuge tubes each with 9ml of nutrient broth.

  • 2. Using a micropipette, we displaced 1ml of the bacterial broth from the overnight culture into a centrifuge tube labeled 1 x 10-¹. This procedure was repeated on the tubes labeled 1 x 10-²to 1 x 10-⁶.

Dilution


Bacterial spreading

Bacterial Spreading


Bacterial spreading1

  • 2. Next, according to the labels, 50 microlitres of bacteria and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.

Bacterial Spreading


Results

RESULTS and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.

DAY 4


Chlorine water
Chlorine Water and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.


Results of chlorine experiment
Results of Chlorine Experiment and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.


Results of chlorine experiment1
Results of Chlorine experiment and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.


Silver nano particles
Silver and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.Nanoparticles


Q&A and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.


Biblography

  • http:// and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.aem.asm.org/content/44/4/972.short

  • https://mrsec.wisc.edu/Edetc/nanolab/silver/

  • http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/68511.php

  • http://natsci.edgewood.edu/wingra/wingra_bacteria.htm

  • http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2009/07/02/f-ecoli-recall-food-safety.html

  • http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/MicroBio_p013.shtml

  • http://proquest.umi.com.libproxy.nlb.gov.sg/pqdweb?index=9&did=2037658811&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1332762445&clientId=13402

Biblography


Thank you
Thank You! and 50 microlitres of silver nanoparticles or chlorine water accordingly was displaced onto the agar dish with a micropipette. This mixture was then spread and sealed with Parafilm, before being kept in the incubator at 36 Degrees Celsius.


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