Indikator pencemaran lingkungan
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INDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN. Oleh Sudrajat. FMIPA_UNMUL 2010. Water pollution. Bacteria,Viruses,Protozoa, Parasitic worms Oxygen demanding substances Inorganic plant nutrients Organic chemicals Sediment or suspended matter Thermal pollution Genetic pollution.

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INDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN

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Indikator pencemaran lingkungan

INDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN

Oleh

Sudrajat

FMIPA_UNMUL

2010


Water pollution

Water pollution

Bacteria,Viruses,Protozoa, Parasitic worms

Oxygen demanding substances

Inorganic plant nutrients

Organic chemicals

Sediment or suspended matter

Thermal pollution

Genetic pollution


Indikator pencemaran lingkungan

Environmental Indicators :

☼ are attributes associated with specific ecosystem elements (e.g., water, plants, animals and people) that are used to characterize and communicate the condition of the ecosystem.

☼ may inform about the current or evolving

state of key ecosystem elements, or

☼ may inform processes or mechanisms

that drive ecosystem health


Indikator biologi

INDIKATOR BIOLOGI

Biota air vs polutan

(sangat sensitif  sangat toleran)

“Tumbuhan”

Index diatomae

Index macrophyta

“Hewan”

Saprobic system

Trent Biotic Index

The National Water Council (NWC) score


Point and nonpoint sources

Point and Nonpoint Sources

NONPOINT SOURCES

Rural homes

Cropland

Urban streets

Animal feedlot

POINT SOURCES

Suburban development

Factory

Wastewater treatment plant


Red tide toxins can cause respiratory problems in humans

Red Tide Toxins Can Cause Respiratory Problems in Humans

Source: Boston Globe, 3/29/05


Pollution of streams

Pollution of Streams

  • Oxygen sag curve

Fig. 20-5


Pollution of lakes

Pollution of Lakes

Discharge of untreated

municipal sewage

(nitrates and phosphates)

Nitrogen compounds

produced by cars

and factories

Natural runoff

(nitrates and

phosphates

Discharge of

detergents

( phosphates)

Manure runoff

From feedlots

(nitrates and

Phosphates,

ammonia)

Discharge of treated

municipal sewage

(primary and secondary

treatment:

nitrates and phosphates)

Runoff from streets,

lawns, and construction

lots (nitrates and

phosphates)

Lake ecosystem

nutrient overload

and breakdown of

chemical cycling

Runoff and erosion

(from from cultivation,

mining, construction,

and poor land use)

Dissolving of

nitrogen oxides

(from internal combustion

engines and furnaces)

  • Eutrophication

Fig .22.7, p. 499


Indikator pencemaran lingkungan

Leaking

tank

Aquifer

Bedrock

Water

table

Groundwater

flow

Free gasoline

dissolves in

groundwater

(dissolved

phase)

Gasoline

leakage plume

(liquid phase)

Migrating

vapor phase

Water well

Contaminant plume moves

with the groundwater

Fig. 20-12


Groundwater pollution causes

Groundwater Pollution: Causes

Hazardous waste injection well

Pesticides

Coal strip mine runoff

De-icing road salt

Buried gasoline and solvent tank

Cesspool septic tank

Pumping well

Gasoline station

Waste lagoon

Water pumping well

Sewer

Landfill

Leakage from faulty casing

Accidental spills

Discharge

Unconfined freshwater aquifer

Confined aquifer

Confined freshwater aquifer

Groundwater flow

Fig. 20-11


Groundwater pollution prevention

Groundwater Pollution Prevention

  • Monitoring aquifers

  • Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal

  • Storing hazardous materials above ground


Indikator pencemaran lingkungan

Industry

Nitrogen oxides

from autos and

smokestacks,

toxic chemicals,

and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries.

Cities

Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters;

Urban sprawl

Bacteria and viruses from

sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds

Construction sites

Sediments are washed into

waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight.

Farms

Runoff of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus.

Red tides

Excess nitrogen causes

explosive growth of

toxicmicroscopic algae,

poisoning fish and

marine mammals.

Closed

shellfish beds

Closed

beach

Oxygen-depleted

zone

Toxic sediments

Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and

accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders.

Oxygen-depleted zone

Sedimentation and algae

overgrowth reduce sunlight,

kill beneficial sea grasses, use

up oxygen, and degrade habitat.

Healthy zone

Clear, oxygen-rich

waters promote growth

of plankton and sea grasses,

and support fish.

Fig. 20-15

Fig. 21-10, p. 505


Hubungan antara polusi organik dan distribusi microorganisme

HUBUNGAN ANTARA POLUSI ORGANIK DAN DISTRIBUSI MICROORGANISME

ZONA POLUSI

1.Polusi organik parah: bakteria, Rodo dan beberapa ciliata lain

Dimana jamur sampah tumbuh: protozoa pemakan bakteria, misalnya Colpidium, Colpoda, Glaucoma, Paramecium.

Bergabung dgn Carchesium, Vorticella, pemakan alga spt Chilodonella, Spirostoma, Stentor

Keanekaragaman bertambah lagi , mis Coleps, Didinium, Lionotus dan rotifera

5.Permulaan pemulihan terlihat adanya penambahan flagellata hijau, spt Euglena, Procus.


Sewage

Sewage

  • Organic waste (sewage) provides food for bacteria, which allows them to grow and reproduce

  • Bacteria use up the oxygen in the water.

  • There is less oxygen for other organisms such as fish and insects.

  • Animals such as fish, stonefly nymphs and shrimps decrease in number.


Domestic pollution sewage describe the trends shown in the graph below

Domestic Pollution – sewageDescribe the trends shown in the graph below.


Domestic pollution sewage

Domestic Pollution – sewage

  • As the concentration of sewage pollution rises, the population of bacteria rises.

  • This is because the bacteria feed off the sewage which provides raw materials and energy for growth and reproduction.

  • At the same time the concentration of oxygen falls.

  • This is because the bacteria use up the oxygen as they break down the organic waste in the sewage.

  • Animals such as fish and stonefly nymphs decrease in number.


Indikator pencemaran lingkungan

Evaporation

Minerals

N, P, C

Organic

N, P, C

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM


Indikator pencemaran lingkungan

Mayfly nymphs cannot survive in waters low in oxygen. They are an indication that the waters are clean


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