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Chapter 9: Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma. What is trauma? A physical injury or wound sustained in sport and produced by external or internal force. Tissues have relative abilities to resist a particular load. If the tissue is stronger, what will happen?
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A physical injury or wound sustained in sport and produced by external or internal force.
The greater magnitude of load it can withstand.
External covering of the body
The body’s largest organ
Epidermis and dermis
According to the mechanical force that causes them
continuous rubbing over the surface of the skin causes a collection of fluid below or within the epidermal layer called a blister
common conditions in which the skin is scraped against a rough surface. The epidermis and dermis are worn away, exposing numerous blood capillaries
when a blow compresses or crushes the skin surface and produces bleeding under the skin, the condition is defined as a bruise, or contusion
a wound in which the flesh has been irregularly torn
skin that is torn by the same mechanism as a laceration to the extent that the tissue is completely ripped from its source is an avulsion injury
a wound in which the skin has been sharply cut
penetrations of the skin by a sharp object
Striated (skeletal) muscle
Sudden traumatic blow to the body
Deep to superficial
A stretch, tear, or rip in the muscle or adjacent tissue such as the fascia or muscle tendon
Abnormal muscular contraction
It is fault in the reciprocal coordination of the agonist and antagonist muscles take place. The cause of this fault or uncoordination is a mystery. However, possible explanations are that it may be related to:
Slight over-stretching to mild tearing (20%) of the muscle fibers. It is accompanied by local pain, which is increased by tension in the muscle, and a minor loss of strength. There is mild swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness.
Moderate tearing (20% - 70%) of the muscle fibers. It is similar to a grade 1, but has moderate signs and symptoms (moderate loss of strength, moderate swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness).
Has signs and symptoms that are severe (severe swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness) with a loss of muscle function and, commonly, a palpable defect in the muscle.
Muscle to bone
At the muscle belly, musculotendinous junction, or bony attachment
A painful involuntary contraction of a skeletal muscle or muscle group.
A lack of water or other electrolytes in relation to muscle fatigue.
A reflexive reaction caused by trauma of the musculoskeletal system
Muscle stiffness does not produce pain. It occurs when a group of muscles have been worked for a long period of time. The fluids that collect in the muscles during and after exercise are absorbed into the bloodstream at a slow rate. As a result, the muscle becomes swollen, shorter, and thicker and therefore resists stretch.
Following injury, the muscle that surrounds the injured area contract, in effect, splint that area, thus minimizing pain by limiting movement. (Quite often this splinting is incorrectly referred to as a muscle spasm)
Slowly, over a long period of time.
Repeated acute injuries
If the acute injury is managed improperly or that allows an athlete to return to activity before healing has completely occurred.
Inflammation of the muscle tissue
Inflammation of tendon-muscle attachments, tendons, or both
Inflammation of the synovial sheath surrounding a tendon
The wasting away of muscle tissue
An abnormal shortening of a muscle tissue in which there is a great deal of resistance to passive stretch
Cartilage and fibrous connective tissue
Bones of a diarthrotic (freely movable) joint are held together by a cuff of fibrous tissue
Sheets or bundles of collagen fibers that form a connection between two bones
Attach bone to bone
Connective tissue that provides firm and flexible support
Stretching or total tearing of the stabilizing connective tissues (ligaments)
Slight over-stretching to mild tearing (20%) of the ligament. It is characterized by some pain, minimum loss of function, mild point tenderness, little or no swelling, and no abnormal motion when tested.
Moderate tearing (20% - 70%) of the ligament. There is pain, moderate loss of function, swelling, and in some cases slight to moderate instability.
It is extremely painful, with major loss of function, severe instability, tenderness, and swelling.
Partial dislocations in which an incomplete separation between two articulating bones occurs.
Total disunion of bone apposition between articulating surfaces
Degenerative changes in the ossification centers of the epiphysis of bones
With repeated microtrauma to the articular joint surfaces, the bone and synovium thicken, and pain, muscle spasm, and articular crepitus, or grating on movement occur.
A fluid-filled sac found at places at which friction might occur within body tissues.
Inflammation of bursa at sites of bony prominences between muscle and tendon.
Chronic inflammatory conditions of the joints.
Inflammation of the periosteum (bone covering)
A partial or complete interruption in a bone’s continuity
Rhythmic muscle action performed over a period of time at a sub-threshold level causes the stress-bearing capacity of a bone to be exceeded