Why write in academic style
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Why write in academic style?. Use conventional structure - say what you are going to say; say it; say what you have said Signpost the organisation of ideas in text To ensure the reader can find the information they need easily. Activity 1.1. Why write in academic style?.

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Why write in academic style?

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Why write in academic style

Why write in academic style?

Use conventional structure - say what you are going to say; say it; say what you have said

Signpost the organisation of ideas in text

To ensure the reader can find the information they need easily.

Activity 1.1


Why write in academic style1

Why write in academic style?

Give your reader the right amount of information (not too little; not too much)

Use precise terminology

Use formal language that readers expect to see in published work

Be concise to avoid distracting the reader from the key ideas – including information in noun phrases can help

To avoid confusion / misunderstandings

Activity 1.1


Why write in academic style2

Why write in academic style?

Develop your stance by using evaluative language:

Reporting verbs – claim /suggest / demonstrate / support

Adverbs – clearly / questionably / surprisingly

However:

Use cautious language – protect yourself

may vswill

many vsall

To provide the reader with your answer to the research question.

Activity 1.1


Why write in academic style3

Activity 1.1

Why write in academic style?

3. Provide the reader with your answer to the research question by developing your stance.

Recognise what is being asked in your assignment titles.

Eg. Describe X  Comment on X  Suggest possible solutions to X


Section 2 topic orientation

Section 2: Topic orientation

  • Activity 2.1

  • What do you think the following pictures represent? What topic might we be about to look at?

  • Discuss with the person next to you


Why write in academic style

h/o


Why write in academic style

  • Activity 2.2: Background (Facts, figures and selling points)

  • Watch the video

  • Were your predictions about the pictures (activity 1.1) correct?


Why write in academic style

  • Activity 2.3: Background (Facts, figures and selling points)

  • Watch the video again

  • Make notes in the box provided

h/o, p. 2


Why write in academic style

  • Activity 2.3: Answers

- World’s 1st mass-produced, purpose-built electric car

- Zero emission (so no exhaust pipe underneath)

- Speed: up to 90mph

- Range: 100 miles

- 2 diff. charging sockets: (1) fast charge; (2) ‘normal’ charge

- Can be plugged in at home: 8 hrs to get full charge on ‘normal’ = £2


Why write in academic style

  • Activity 2.3: Answers (continued)

- Fuel gauge (capacity left in battery)

- Power use/generation display (regenerative breaking = charge battery when breaking)

- ‘Grow trees’ function = how ‘green’ you’re driving (can compete w/other drivers around world)

- On-board map: circles indicate driving range left on current charge (smaller circle based on more ‘aggressive’ driving, larger circle based on more ‘conservative’ driving)


Why write in academic style

  • Activity 2.3: Answers (continued)

- Just under £29,000, but:

- Gov. subsidy = £5,000, so…

- Retail price = just under £24,000


Section 3 incorporating sources

Section 3: Incorporating Sources

  • Activity 3.1: Areas of interest about the car (sub-categories)

  • You have seen the video introducing the Nissan Leaf.

  • Think about what aspects of the car were mentioned.

  • If you were writing about the advantages and disadvantages of

  • the Nissan Leaf, what ‘sub-categories’ could be discussed within

  • each of these categories?

For example: Environment (category)

- Production (sub-category)

h/o, p. 1


Why write in academic style

Activity 3.1: Areas of interest about the car (sub-categories)

Use

Disposal

Speed / Range

Int. displays / Funct.

Charging tech. / avail.

Cost (to buy)

Running costs

Jobs

External noise

Internal noise


Why write in academic style

Activity 3.2: Selecting Relevant Information

  • Read sources 1 – 10 regarding the Nissan Leaf (on pages 3 and 4 of your hand-out). For each source say:

  • Which of the sub-categories you think it matches, and;

  • Does it support an argument ‘for’ or ‘against’ the Nissan Leaf?

h/o, p. 3 - 4


Why write in academic style

Activity 3.2: Selecting Relevant Information

  • Read sources 1 – 10 regarding the Nissan Leaf (on pages 4 and 5 of your hand-out). For each source say:

  • Which of the sub-categories you think it matches, and;

  • Does it support an argument ‘for’ or ‘against’ the Nissan Leaf?

  • Example:

Use (could be used ‘against’)

In order to be truly green we’ve got to have renewable power to power our electric cars. It must be said, however, behavioural change – how people actually travel – is an important part of the solution.

1

Bosworth, T., R. C. Smith & P. O’Neil (2010) Turning over a new Leaf. Smart Materials 19(3): 22-30.

h/o, p. 3


Why write in academic style

4 (F)

9 (F)

2 (A)

3 (A)

5 (F)

6 (F/A)

5 (A)

10 (F/A)

2 (A)

3 (A)

4 (F)

7 (A)

5 (F)

7 (A)

8 (F)

9 (A)


Why write in academic style

Although the Nissan Leaf demonstrates a number of possible benefits, these seem to be countered by a number of significant drawbacks. The fact that from 2012 its batteries began to be constructed at a plant in Sunderland, and from 2013 the vehicle will be manufactured there as well (8), is important for the local economy. However, for many potential customers, practicality and range may be deciding factors.It could be argued that, fundamentally, the UK is not yet prepared for conversion to electric cars. There is a lack of infrastructure and charging points, which will severely limit the amount of people prepared to buy the Leaf. Furthermore, although as a city car or an inter-urban commuter vehicle it excels (6), anyone wishing to take it for longer journeys will be inhibited by the fact that refuelling at motorway service stations is not presently a possibility (7). Not only that, but the widely-advertised driving range of 100 miles is reduced significantly if you use the air-conditioning or heating (5), or remotely adjust the temperature via mobile devices (10). Matters related to range and charging are compounded further still by the fact that a standard charge will require approximately 8 hours (7), compared with a few minutes filling the tank at a petrol station. Taking such factors into account illustrates the current outweighing of disadvantages over advantages with the electric car. This can be put into context by remembering that “…in order to be truly green we’ve got to have renewable power to power our electric cars” (Bosworth et al, 2010).


Why write in academic style

Same sentence structure, different vocabulary

Although the Nissan Leaf demonstrates a number of possible benefits, these seem to be countered by a number of significant drawbacks. The fact that from 2012 its batteries began to be constructed at a plant in Sunderland, and from 2013 the vehicle will be manufactured there as well (8),is important for the local economy. However, for many potential customers, practicality and range may be deciding factors.It could be argued that, fundamentally, the UK is not yet prepared for conversion to electric cars. There is a lack of infrastructure and charging points, which will severely limit the amount of people prepared to buy the Leaf. Furthermore, although as a city car or an inter-urban commuter vehicle it excels (6), anyone wishing to take it for longer journeys will be inhibited by the fact that refuelling at motorway service stations is not presently a possibility (7). Not only that, but the widely-advertised driving range of 100 miles is reduced significantly if you use the air-conditioning or heating (5), or remotely adjust the temperature via mobile devices (10). Matters related to range and charging are compounded further still by the fact that a standard charge will require approximately 8 hours (7), compared with a few minutes filling the tank a petrol station. Taking such factors into account illustrates the current outweighing of disadvantages over advantages with the electric car. This can be put into context by remembering that in order to be truly green we’ve got to have renewable power to power our electric cars (1).

Direct quote without “….”

Same vocabulary, different sentence structure

Same sentence structure, different vocabulary

Same sentence structure, different vocabulary

Direct quote without “….”


Activity 3 4 in text citation

Activity 3.4: In-text Citation

Emphasizes the writer as much as the idea

Emphasizes the idea presented over the writer

When using multiple sources to support a single point (it would be unwieldy to integrally cite numerous studies for one point)

By introducing the writer of the idea, it offers you the opportunity to use reporting verbs / phrases, which can (though not always) help to promote your stance towards the ideas (verbs such as ‘claim’ or modifying reporting verbs with modal adverbs, such as ‘rightly’ or ‘erroneously’)


Activity 3 4 sentence patterns when using integral citation

Activity 3.4: Sentence Patterns when using Integral Citation

  • Match each of the patterns below with the appropriate sentence:

  • According to Cotter & Rusedski (2011) it functions best as an everyday car for the city…

  • Cotter & Rusedski (2011) claim that it functions best as an everyday car for the city…

  • Cotter & Rusedski’s theory (2011) is that it functions best as an everyday car for the city…

  • The claim that it functions best as an everyday car for the city was introduced by Cotter & Rusedski (2011)...

Researcher as subject of the sentenceSentence

Researcher as part of a reporting phrase/clause Sentence

Researcher as agent of a passive sentence Sentence

Researcher as part of a possessive noun phrase Sentence

2

1

4

3


Section 4 writing critically

Section 4: Writing Critically

Claim

Hypothesise

Estimate

Propose

Suggest

Conclude

Demonstrate

State

Report

Show

Observe


Activity 4 2 the advantage of referring reporting verbs and adverbs stance

Activity 4.2: The advantage of referring: reporting verbs and adverbs (stance) 

How can the following ‘neutral’ reporting verb be transformed into a stance of agreement?

(e.g. “Smith (2011) states that a number of…..”

(Modal) Adverbs

“Smith (2011) rightlystates that a number of…..”


Activity 4 2 the advantage of referring reporting verbs and adverbs stance1

Activity 4.2: The advantage of referring: reporting verbs and adverbs (stance) 

The same can be done to transform ‘neutral’ reporting verbs into a stance of disagreement?

(e.g. “Smith (2011) states that a number of…..”

Modal Adverbs

“Smith (2011) erroneously states that a number of…..”


Activity 4 2 other ways of showing your position

Activity 4.2: Other ways of showing your position

1. Although the Nissan Leaf demonstrates a number of possible benefits, these seem to be countered by a number of significant drawbacks.

2. Although there seem to be a number of significant drawbacks, the Nissan Leaf demonstrates a number of possible benefits.

3. The Nissan Leaf demonstrates a number of possible benefits, but these seem to be countered by a number of significant drawbacks.


Activity 4 2 other ways of showing your position1

Activity 4.2: Other ways of showing your position

1. Although the Nissan Leaf demonstrates a number of possible benefits, these seem to be countered by a number of significant drawbacks.

2. Although there seem to be a number of significant drawbacks, the Nissan Leaf demonstrates a number of possible benefits.

3. The Nissan Leaf demonstrates a number of possible benefits, but these seem to be countered by a number of significant drawbacks.


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